AVENUE21. Automatisierter und vernetzter Verkehr: Entwicklungen des urbanen Europa

1 June 2021
Even though the technical feasibility of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) is assessed more soberly today than roughly 10 years ago, the increase in automation and connectivity of transport is expected to fundamentally reorganize mobility.   Surveys reveal that experts (1) value participation of political, public, and civil actors, (2) expect automated transport to displace non-automated transport, (3) expect a paradigm shift from modality focused questions to automation focused questions, and (4) do not expect the deployment of CAVs to occur evenly across the settlement structure.   Politicians and planners must balance both the functioning and liveability of public space while optimizing streets for CAVs. Therefore, a gradual process of CAV deployment across the road network is expected (a “Long Level 4” stage) based on an “automated drivability index”. Consequences include (1) a destabilization of the spatial/transport system, (2) extremely dynamic land use due to shifting location choices, (3) progressive urban sprawl, and (4) considerable municipal fiscal effects.   It is acknowledged that change will be initiated within a paradigm of greater ecological sustainability that also considers social and economic effects. Reimagining urban mobility requires a critical reflection on established instruments and policy measures, as well as identification of new approaches and actors. Key points are (1) a lack of coordination between different EU transport policy levels due to contradictory objectives, (2) the inflexibility of established administrative structures, (3) establishing reflexive planning and governance concepts to combat expected uncertainty in mobility planning, and (4) the potential of CAV pilot projects in relation to  achieving the objectives of sustainable mobility.   The influence of the spatial context and the fact that a shift toward sustainable transport also requires classic political planning, suggests that the transition period can be shaped locally. The constellation of actors in politics and planning and their mindset are the key factors.  Cities and regions must accept their responsibility to shape the future and cannot wait until issues are fixed at higher policy levels and/or until the new technologies have already been deployed. The considerable uncertainties that will arise in urban and mobility planning in the coming years make it necessary to establish reflexive planning and governance concepts in which the possibility of revision is an integrated part of the planning process.