Last modified on February 20, 2024



The integration Cluster 4 plays a pivotal role with regard to the goal of the CCAM partnership – to create more user-centred, all-inclusive mobility, while increasing safety, reducing congestion and contributing to decarbonisation. Connected Automated Vehicles represent an integrated part of the future effective and efficient Mobility System, interacting with their environment, humans and other – old and new – transport means. Connectivity and automation are closely linked to each other for a coordinated and unified approach towards introduction, as outlined in the Declaration of Amsterdam.

Cluster 4 Objectives

  • Provide digital information from all road transport operators and actors incl. private and commercially used individual vehicles to enable automated vehicles in mixed traffic (to Cluster 1).
  • Develop connectivity and communication solutions to be integrated in vehicle technologies for sensor fusion, supporting on-board decision making, and enabling new HMI and active safety solutions (to Cluster 2).
  • Provide transport system context (incl. infrastructure) for validation purposes (to Cluster 3).
  • Deliver approaches and requirements regarding connectivity and communication towards cyber security or data sharing (to Cluster 5).
  • Provide feedback on people needs and societal expectations (to Cluster 6) and further coordination needs (to Cluster 7)

The cluster finds itself at the crossroads of different mobility sub-systems, requiring integration steps taking a system of systems perspective on mobility management (including sustainability and planning aspects as well as road safety and human factors). Interaction with infrastructures (road and telecommunication infrastructure, automotive back-ends as well as the mobility services and the accompanying infrastructure) is crucial for the success of the system integration. Elements of physical, digital and operational infrastructure are important, in particular building a common understanding of what is required, how it can be achieved, and which roads should be prioritised with a view towards implementation. To prepare for the integration of maturing technologies, research in all clusters needs to encompass advances on methodologies, tools and applied safe and secure technologies, as well as governance and architecture issues. With regard to longer investment cycles of road infrastructure and budgetary processes of public actors, there is a challenge to identify no-regret infrastructure investment in support of enlarging and optimising (e.g. robustness, predictability, uninterrupted coverage) Operational Design Domains (ODD) for CCAM vehicles. Moreover, all of these aspect call for harmonisation towards an EU definition of CCAM (incl. its system elements, i.e. vehicles, different infrastructures) and the CCAM ecosystem. Guiding principle for the integration of CCAM into the mobility system is the service point of view. As services are characterised by underlying value propositions, the integration cluster has to address the needs and requirements of actors such as private vehicle users, public authorities and public transport operators and logistics operators. Even in a system-of-system’s perspective, there are distinct sub-domains embracing individual vehicles services, shared vehicles services and logistics services. To better explain the integration process of vehicles in the transport system, the aspects of connectivity and interoperability need to be further highlighted. Connectivity represents an important capability of Connected and Automated Vehicles, expecting to increase the safety and efficiency performance of automation functions. Interoperability is key for providing seamless mobility, most notably at locations where handovers between infrastructure operators (e.g. urban – interurban road network, cross-border, Mobile Network Operators) are needed and between transport operators and service providers. Besides the connectivity aspect, cross-sector harmonised message sets based on standards are needed for communicating C-ITS information and also triggering actions of and between vehicles (e.g. cooperative manoeuvres, negotiation of intentions). Furthermore, Connected and Automated Vehicles may not necessarily be driven as an individual object in a swarm (traffic flow) but to an increasing extent becoming part of a managed fleet operated in the mobility system. Although differing in operational aspects, from traffic management perspective, the task of fleet management and orchestration is independent from which actor takes this role (e.g. service provided by fleet management, individualised or semi-collective recommendations from traffic management) and whether a fleet is shared or mixed in modes.

A specific element with regard to safe operation of Connected Automated Vehicles which has grown in importance is remote management (as currently proposed as top-level term), comprising a.o. remote assistance and remote driving. This element requires research and innovation across clusters as it can deliver benefits to several CCAM domains and related use cases such as automated shuttles and car sharing, hub-to-hub Heavy Goods Vehicles transports and delivery bots. The investigation of a number of issues related to, but not limited to, support requirements, functional safety, human machine interaction, validation, in-service monitoring of ADS capabilities, key enabling technologies, labour market aspects, roles and responsibilities would accelerate the technological and societal readiness of remote assistance and remote driving. Obviously, the R&I needs do cut across clusters (most notably Clusters 3, 5 and 6) while the element itself resides in the integration cluster.

The R&I actions of this cluster, i.e. extending fleet and traffic management for CCAM, physical and digital road infrastructure, communication infrastructure, connectivity and cooperative systems, can build on important achievements of research projects, related standardisation activities as well as regulatory and policy initiatives. In a generalised view the achievements on which the CCAM partnership builds on are as follows:

  • The first generation of C-ITS services (Day 1 services) and their underlying message sets have been successfully developed, tested, standardised and profiled, piloted at large scale in Europe and have found their way into deployment. 
  • First concepts and messages for next generation services which go well beyond sharing information only, aiming at e.g. predictability of driving manoeuvres and transition of automation levels (incl. Transition of Control (ToC) aspects), have been studied and have been instrumental to standardisation work.
  • Many of the CCAM services and Use Cases can benefit from 5G communication. A first set of projects and cross-border trials has looked into validating advanced 5G features such as New Radio, Mobile Edge Computing, Network Slicing, roaming techniques, O-RAN, Non-Terrestrial Networks, etc. Terrestrial Networks are the enabler for the deployment of the next CCAM services. Non-terrestrial Networks shall be explored as a complement to 5G terrestrial networks to enable seamless CCAM services in a future deployment timing. The seamless handover has to be addressed in order to provide an acceptable experience for CCAM services. Based on the findings from R&I and pilots, an early wave of actions for 5G systems deployment along transport corridors has been formed recently, supported by the CEF Digital Programme. Besides the application to the “vertical”, it is also necessary to inform about CCAM requirements towards the development of 6G as the next generation of mobile communication, driven by the Smart Networks and Services Joint Undertaking.
  • It is commonly understood that road infrastructure support can benefit the “sense-plan-act” process of CCAM enabled vehicles. Relevant elements of physical, digital and operational infrastructure have been identified. How infrastructure can provide assistance to CCAM enabled vehicles has been developed and studied and is still ongoing.
  • Mixed traffic, comprising automated and conventional vehicles as well as including the interaction with mobility users, poses several challenges. Road safety and transport efficiency as well as suitable modelling tools, automation ready infrastructure and automation ready road authorities have been studied and are still being addressed in R&I. Studies have found so far important contributions to the goal of the CCAM partnership while indicating conflicts in goal achievement which are attributable to the mixed traffic configuration and the multiplicity of the needs to be addressed (e.g. safety and efficiency).
  • Improved collaboration within and across sectors also require shared knowledge, common tools and federation mechanisms to achieve superior performance on shared goals. Support actions have strongly enhanced the knowledge base, stimulated the collaboration tools and mapped out mechanisms which can serve as blueprints for the goal of the CCAM partnership.
  • Many projects have delivered important inputs to the evolution of (multi-part) standards, e.g., DATEX II, TPEG, METR, cooperative ITS messages such as CAM, DENM, IVI, CPM, etc. In order to take full advantage of standardisation achievements, the uptake and possible harmonisation of standards in R&I, testing and piloting should be pursued.
  • Moreover, the CCAM partnership is embedded in a policy and regulatory environment in favour of CCAM, mobility integration and data sharing, e.g., ITS Action Plan and ITS Directive, C-ITS Strategy, CCAM Strategy, Data Strategy, type approval of the ADS of fully automated vehicles. It is useful that R&I activities address aspects needed for a controlled and harmonized EU-wide CCAM implementation (such as listed in the MVWG-ACV paper on policy topics, comprising a.o. enforcement and data collection on the safe use of ADS). Involving actors like police, emergency services and insurers provide valuable insights that can facilitate deployment and operation of CCAM services.

Cluster 4 R&I Actions

The specific R&I actions relating to “Integrating CCAM in the transport system” are:

  • Physical and Digital Infrastructure (PDI). PDI improves CCAM services and enhances their performance by extending the operational domains as well as increasing functional safety and traffic efficiency. EU-wide and global harmonisation is key to define necessary infrastructure support for CCAM, enabling broad market uptake of services and guaranteeing coordinated deployment and a single market based on complementary Operational Design Domain (ODD) and infrastructure support.
  • Connectivity and Cooperative Systems. Hybrid communication approaches based on a technological neutral definition of connectivity and communication between vehicle and all elements of the transport system enable information exchange, realising collective perception and therefore enable cooperative automated mobility. In the expected mix of CCAM vehicles and conventional traffic this ensures the smooth and safe coexistence of connected cooperative automated vehicles and all other road users (specifically vulnerable road users) and enables better driving functions and increased traffic efficiency.
  • Fleet and traffic management in a CCAM eco-system. CCAM has to enable a system that orchestrates traffic management sub-systems, where people and goods will have to move within a continuous and cross-border framework of services that are interoperable (inter-modal interfaces should also be included). It is essential, that both fleets (commercial/logistics fleets, fleets operated by public or private transport operators) and individual vehicles (CCAM- or conventional vehicles) are well integrated in the entire traffic management system. This comprises planning, forecasting and managing the movements of each single vehicle according to its specific needs and under mixed traffic conditions. Fleet and traffic management utilises new and updated tools of operational infrastructure in CCAM support for instance to mitigate the risks due to transfer of vehicle control between ADS and human driver or to supervise ADS in potential edge cases with possible loss of ODD.

Cluster 4 Expected Outcomes

  • Common understanding of requirements and minimum set of infrastructure adaptations for the physical, digital and operational infrastructure for CCAM systems and services, in mixed traffic with conventional vehicles and other road users and modes of transport, responding to the specific requirements of each traffic context. 
  • Description and development of service architectures of PDI for CCAM systems and services and agreed classification of infrastructure support levels stimulating EU-wide/global harmonisation for classification of infrastructure support.
  • PDI support concepts of proven maturity (technically, functionally, etc.), developed in cooperation with road users and vehicle manufacturers to extend their Operational Design Domains (ODD) and provide ODD awareness to automated driving systems, and ready for large-scale demonstration actions.
  • Simulations and testing to investigate how PDI can support CCAM and which are the effects on traffic efficiency, traffic safety and traffic management (e.g. identification and performing of minimum risk maneuver).
  • Business and financing models, policy options and ways to increase competencies and resources for road authorities, operators and traffic managers ensure physical, digital and operational infrastructures remain fit for purpose.
  • Connectivity and cooperation enablers and needs for higher levels of automation identified and assessed, based on a detailed Use Case-approach for the CCAM mobility system.
  • Requirements for availability (e.g. coverage, security) and performance of connectivity and cooperation enablers (e.g., data rates, latency, interruption time, robustness and redundancy, quality of service, resilience against cyberattacks) specified per CCAM Use Case, meeting requirements of functional safety and safety-critical applications.
  • Ensured quality of and trust in external data by common definitions (incl. quality indicators definition) meeting requirements of cross-border interoperability and continuity.
  • Feasible and sustainable concepts for and provision of road infrastructure coverage of connectivity and positioning along the road network developed to enable CCAM services, included in testing at living labs and ready for large scale demonstration. 
  • Integrated perspective and recommendation for actions on co-design, co-investment, coexistence, co-management and co-performance of connectivity and communication systems.
  • Concepts of fleet and traffic management in the CCAM eco-system that go beyond digital twinning enabling optimised (and/or optimisable) systems for the mobility of people and goods and are well integrated with existing urban/regional mobility environments. The technological levers (What is possible with CCAM?) address and balance societal and people needs (What can and what should CCAM solve?).
  • Interfaces that enable interoperability between traffic management systems (of different geographical locations and/or of CCAM vehicles and other modes of transport) considering integration beyond road transport in the overall multimodal transport system providing seamless mobility services.
  • Advancement and evaluation of CCAM enabled mobility services to identify their market potential. Identification of the necessary adaptations of the mobility service solutions and their framework conditions.
  • Addressing urgent CCAM development needs to realize quick wins for the societal benefit. As a system-of-system’s approach these analyses need to consider the different maturity of CCAM Use Cases regarding distinct sub-domains embracing individual vehicle services, shuttle services and logistics services.
  • Digital and operational infrastructure and related tools needed for the remote fleet management operation of ADS to ensure the road safety and traveller security in automated private and public transport vehicles (including robo-taxis, delivery vehicles, public transport shuttles).
  • Advanced simulation models and tools that enable and help planning, designing and assessing traffic management strategies (including dedicated lanes, priorities at intersections etc.) and demand management strategies enabled by CCAM.
  • Optimised mobility network load balancing approaches through advanced traffic management guidance and information loops that can reach individual users as well as operational traffic and fleet management actors.
  • Effective cooperation and governance models for operating CCAM services as part of real-life fleet and traffic management systems developed and tested.
  • Harmonised approach for creating unambiguous and objective rules of the road (digital versions of national driving codes, traffic orders, mandatory traffic management measures etc.). Digital driving license for ADS should be developed. 
  • Support requirements, functional safety, human-machine interaction, in-service monitoring of ADS capabilities, roles and responsibilities (e.g. information needs of tele-operators, latency effects compensation, switching between roles, technology confidence and expertise formation) of remote assistance and remote driving.

Cluster 4 Timeline (as of Feb 2024)

All planned R&I actions of cluster 4 start early. The actions advance during the CCAM Partnership timeline towards testing and implementation in Cluster 1. Expected outcomes of the first actions/projects (AUGMENTED CCAM, PoDIUM, CONDUCTOR, IN2CCAM) will allow for implementing specific elements after the first phase of the CCAM Partnership. At the same time, it is expected that R&I actions of the technology clusters (Cluster 2 and 5) will deliver important results on e.g., improved sensor and in-vehicle decision making capabilities as well as how cybersecurity can be best embraced in order to allow and achieve a transport system integration of vehicles, infrastructure, user and overarching entities. These inputs, including progressing the state-of-play on core R&I topics of Cluster 4 itself, will stimulate a second wave of Innovation Actions. This wave aims at advancing the technical maturity and putting more emphasis on the organisational implications of the proposed solutions, all to drive the integration of vehicles in the transport system. The second wave targets on delivering mature results ready for testing and implementation in the final third phase of the programme. The following image aims at making this progression process transparent.

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