A High Level Meeting was held in the Netherlands on 15 February 2017.
A High Level Meeting was held in the Netherlands on 15 February 2017. It as attended by representatives from 24 EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland. Transport and Telecom ministers, the European Commission and parties from the automotive and telecom industries were also present.
This document sets out the shared view of a wide group of stakeholders supporting the objectives of the 5G Strategic Deployment Agenda (SDA) for Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM) in Europe, based on future-proof 5G-enabled infrastructure, technologies and vehicles.
This document sets out the shared view of a wide group of stakeholders supporting the objectives of the 5G Strategic Deployment Agenda (SDA) for Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM) in Europe, based on future-proof 5G-enabled infrastructure, technologies and vehicles.
Furthermore, this document concentrates on identifying the key elements to progress along the main elements mentioned below. The initial goal is to stimulate investments into a network of pan-European 5G Corridors for Connected and Automated Mobility as a first strategic step towards large scale deployment of 5G for CAM and other high value services related to connected vehicles, road operation and overall smart transportation.
In a stakeholder workshop in January 2019, held by the 5G-PPP Automotive working group, the stakeholder community decided to develop three main elements as part of the SDA: (i) Deployment Objectives; (ii) Cooperation Models; (iii) Regulatory Innovation.
(i) The parties participating in the development of this SDA have defined 8 principles that underpin their common vision for the 5G SDA for CAM.
(ii) The following ecosystem categories have been identified:
Driving safety and automation sub-system
Mobile broadband emergency services
Uptake of high-value commercial 5G services along transport paths
The promoters of this SDA strongly agree with the objective of starting with the deployment of the identified set of 5G corridors, taking advantage of the wider dynamic created by the planned public financing.
(iii) The regulatory environment will play an important role to enable innovative business approaches and incentivise investments in mobile network expansion for CAM. This concerns in particular:
The different network sharing options.
The co-investment approaches and wholesale-only model.
The spectrum needs some harmonization assignment and roll-out obligation.
This CAV Roadmap for Scotland explores the opportunities associated with the adoption of CAV technologies on Scotland’s roads and the challenges in their deployment.
This CAV Roadmap for Scotland explores the opportunities associated with the adoption of CAV technologies on Scotland’s roads and the challenges in their deployment. It sets out the relationship between CAV technologies and the Scottish Government’s transport and economic ambitions. It also explores where and how CAV technologies could be utilised, where and how we can benefit from contributing to their development and what interventions and initiatives might be required for us to unlock these opportunities.
CAV is a key enabler of delivering the Programme for Government, because CAV technologies will help drive inclusive, environmentally sustainable growth throughout Scotland, within a safe, enhanced and integrated transport system. Scotland is ‘open for business’ in CAV developments and is well-positioned to build on existing industrial and academic assets and capabilities whilst simultaneously developing new skills and capabilities.
Scotland is integral to the future of CAVs, because: - Transport Scotland can facilitate testing on live road environments; the Scottish strategic road network is diverse; - Scotland has strengths in simulation and virtual reality; - Scotland’s R&D sector will continue to develop sensors, image processing and AI solutions with support from the Scottish Government; - the Scottish Government acknowledges the benefits of connectivity and automation but is also aware of the importance of an efficient and accessible CAV supply chain to prepare for the changes the technology could bring; - Scotland welcomes collaboration, investment, and involvement from industry, academia, and public sector partners.
Relation with other roadmaps/plans:
Key examples of Transport Scotland’s active engagement are the pilot project CAVForth and the highly regarded annual CAV Scotland conference.
Even though the technical feasibility of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) is assessed more soberly today than roughly 10 years ago, the increase in automation and connectivity of transport is expected to fundamentally reorganize mobility.
Even though the technical feasibility of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) is assessed more soberly today than roughly 10 years ago, the increase in automation and connectivity of transport is expected to fundamentally reorganize mobility. Surveys reveal that experts (1) value participation of political, public, and civil actors, (2) expect automated transport to displace non-automated transport, (3) expect a paradigm shift from modality focused questions to automation focused questions, and (4) do not expect the deployment of CAVs to occur evenly across the settlement structure. Politicians and planners must balance both the functioning and liveability of public space while optimizing streets for CAVs. Therefore, a gradual process of CAV deployment across the road network is expected (a “Long Level 4” stage) based on an “automated drivability index”. Consequences include (1) a destabilization of the spatial/transport system, (2) extremely dynamic land use due to shifting location choices, (3) progressive urban sprawl, and (4) considerable municipal fiscal effects. It is acknowledged that change will be initiated within a paradigm of greater ecological sustainability that also considers social and economic effects. Reimagining urban mobility requires a critical reflection on established instruments and policy measures, as well as identification of new approaches and actors. Key points are (1) a lack of coordination between different EU transport policy levels due to contradictory objectives, (2) the inflexibility of established administrative structures, (3) establishing reflexive planning and governance concepts to combat expected uncertainty in mobility planning, and (4) the potential of CAV pilot projects in relation to achieving the objectives of sustainable mobility. The influence of the spatial context and the fact that a shift toward sustainable transport also requires classic political planning, suggests that the transition period can be shaped locally. The constellation of actors in politics and planning and their mindset are the key factors. Cities and regions must accept their responsibility to shape the future and cannot wait until issues are fixed at higher policy levels and/or until the new technologies have already been deployed. The considerable uncertainties that will arise in urban and mobility planning in the coming years make it necessary to establish reflexive planning and governance concepts in which the possibility of revision is an integrated part of the planning process.
The CCAM Partnership Vision is to ensure European leadership in safe and sustainable road transport through automation.
The CCAM Partnership Vision is to ensure European leadership in safe and sustainable road transport through automation. With full integration of CCAM in the transport system, the CCAM partnership shall contribute to achieving the following positive impacts for society:
Safety: Reducing the number of road fatalities and accidents caused by human error.
Environment: Reducing transport emissions and congestion by optimising capacity, smoothening traffic flow and avoiding unnecessary trips
Inclusiveness: Ensuring inclusive mobility and goods access for all
Competitiveness: Strengthen competitiveness of European industries by technological leadership, ensuring long-term growth and jobs.
The Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) for CCAM defined specific objectives, which contribute to generic objectives that will yield the expected impacts. The SRIA for CAM builds the foundation for delivering the specific objectives between 2021 and 2030. Furthermore, the partnership identified possible performance indicators to support the partnership progress monitoring and to assess the contribution of the partnership in achieving the objectives.
In addition, the SRIA for CCAM also provides details of what research and innovation (R&I) actions are required; why and when these R&I actions are needed; and how these actions contribute to achieving the objectives and initiating the transformative process in society.
This roadmap for Connected Automated Driving contributes to the long-term vision of ERTRAC for the transport system.
This roadmap for Connected Automated Driving contributes to the long-term vision of ERTRAC for the transport system. In one sentence: by 2050, vehicles should be electrified, automated and shared.
The main objective of the ERTRAC Roadmap is to provide a joint stakeholders view on the development of Connected Automated Driving in Europe. The Roadmap starts with common definitions of automation levels and systems, and then identifies the challenges for the implementation of higher levels of automated driving functions. Development paths are provided for three different categories of vehicles.
The Key Challenges identified within the three areas (Users & society, System & services, and Vehicles & technology) should lead to efforts of Research and Development: ERTRAC calls for pre-competitive collaboration among European industry and research providers. The key role of public authorities is also highlighted: for policy and regulatory needs, and support to deployment, with the objective of European harmonisation. Connected Automated Driving must therefore take a key role in the European Transport policy, since it can support several of its objectives and societal challenges, such as road safety, congestion, decarbonisation, social inclusiveness, etc. The overall efficiency of the transport system can be much increased thanks to automation.
Relation with other roadmaps/plans:
The previous “Automated Driving Roadmap” of ERTRAC was issued in 2017 and provided updated definitions and development paths, an updated list of EU and international activities, and an extended list of R&D challenges. This new 2019 version presents again a full update of these chapters, and given that the topic of connectivity is becoming progressively more important, it includes connectivity related aspects and the addition of infrastructure related topics. A collaboration with the CEDR CAD work group helped a lot to bring these additional aspects into the document. This new version also builds on the STRIA CAT Roadmap developed by the European Commission.
This R&D Plan aims to help solve social issues, including reducing traffic accidents and congestion, ensuring mobility for vulnerable road users, and mitigating the driver shortage and reducing the costs of logistics and mobility services by practically applying, deploying, and expanding automated driving, thereby raising quality of life throughout society.
This R&D Plan aims to help solve social issues, including reducing traffic accidents and congestion, ensuring mobility for vulnerable road users, and mitigating the driver shortage and reducing the costs of logistics and mobility services by practically applying, deploying, and expanding automated driving, thereby raising quality of life throughout society. In this R&D plan four areas are prioritized, for each area activities, objectives and goals have been defined. This summary contains for each priority area a list of main research topics, which are the basis for the planned activities.
Development and validation (FOTs) of automated driving systems: - FOTs in Tokyo waterfront area - FOTs for the social implementation of transportation and logistics services in local regions - FOTs of data interrelation, focusing on road traffic environmental data related to automated driving
Development of core technologies for the practical implementation of automated driving: - Road traffic environmental data utilization technology - Safety evaluation technologies - Other core technologies
Fostering of public acceptance of automated driving: - Delivery of information to the public and fostering of understanding - Investigation and research for the resolution of social issues by automated driving technologies
Enhancement of international cooperation: - Delivery of information to the world through SIP-adus Workshop (international workshop) and other opportunities - Promotion of joint research in automated driving with overseas research organizations
The aim of the LEVITATE project is to prepare a new impact assessment framework to enable policymakers to manage the introduction of connected and automated transport systems, maximize the benefits and utilize the technologies to achieve societal objectives.
The aim of the LEVITATE project is to prepare a new impact assessment framework to enable policymakers to manage the introduction of connected and automated transport systems, maximize the benefits and utilize the technologies to achieve societal objectives. As part of this work the LEVITATE project seeks to forecast societal level impacts of connected and automated transport systems (CATS). These include impacts on safety, environment, economy, and society.
The aim of Deliverables 5.1 (Defining the future of urban transport), 6.1 (Defining the future of passenger car transport), and 7.1 (Defining the future of freight transport) is to provide a working framework under which the future of urban transport, passenger car transport, and freight transport including the resulting impacts can be defined.
In order to progress in impact assessment, a future needed to be defined and this was considered by examining literature on available market penetration forecasts along with technology roadmaps and, information gathering through a stakeholders’ workshop. It must be emphasised that the technological roadmaps are generally focused on when a particular technology will be available but not on its market penetration.
Main findings from the stakeholder workshops:
D5.1 While planning processes extend to 2040 for level 5 technology, there is no agreement on what to expect. Overall, workshop participants stated that CATS were mainly expected to supplement public transport functions.
D6.1 While planning processes extend to year 2040 for level 5 technology, no formal definitions of exactly what to expect are in place. Overall, workshop participants stated that CATS were mainly expected to supplement public transport functions.
D7.1 Collaboration between freight operators should be enforced by facilitating data sharing, utilising consolidation centres, and improving the last mile solutions.
Further work (to be) carried out for each deliverable mentioned in this summary within the LEVITATE project:
1. Prioritisation of sub-use cases
2. Literature review specific to sub-use cases and impacts
3. Analysing impacts using appropriate methodologies
The document presents a unifying posture to inform collaborative efforts in automated vehicles for all stakeholders and outlines past and current federal government efforts to address these areas of concern.
The document presents a unifying posture to inform collaborative efforts in automated vehicles for all stakeholders and outlines past and current federal government efforts to address these areas of concern. It establishes US government principles that consist of three core interests, each of which is comprised of several sub-areas:
1. Protect Users and Communities * Prioritize Safety * Emphasize Security and Cybersecurity * Ensure Privacy and Data Security * Enhance Mobility and Accessibility
2. Promote Efficient Markets * Remain Technology Neutral * Protect American Innovation and Creativity * Modernize Regulations
3. Facilitate Coordinated Efforts * Promote Consistent Standards and Policies * Ensure a Consistent Federal Approach * Improve Transportation System-Level Effects
The document motivates a future for the US in which it is a global leader in the automated vehicle technology and describes the benefits of such a position. Furthermore, it lists administration efforts that support the growth and leadership in this area, as well as the activities and opportunities the US government to take towards collaboration.
The aim of this survey is to measure public awareness and attitudes towards connected and automated driving considering their role in the European strategy to improve road transport in terms of safety and efficiency as also laid down in the recent European Green Deal, and the 2018 Communication on connected and automated mobility.
The aim of this survey is to measure public awareness and attitudes towards connected and automated driving considering their role in the European strategy to improve road transport in terms of safety and efficiency as also laid down in the recent European Green Deal, and the 2018 Communication on connected and automated mobility. In this light, this survey seeks EU citizens’ views on automated and connected vehicles and sheds light on how comfortable they would feel with such vehicles as part of their daily lives.
The survey’s objectives are to: * Assess EU citizens’ awareness of automated vehicles and their experience with automated or semi-automated driving functions * Measure attitudes towards driving in or interacting with automated vehicles on the road * Evaluate citizens’ willingness to purchase and use automated vehicles * Determine what citizens expect with regard to automated vehicles.
This survey was carried out by the Kantar network in the 28 Member States of the EU, between 11 and 29 September 2019. A total of 27,565 respondents from different social and demographic groups were interviewed face to face, at home, in their mother tongue. The survey was carried out on behalf of the European Commission’s Joint Research Center. The Methodology used is that of Eurobarmeter surveys as carried out by the Dictorate-General for Communication (“media monitoring and Eurobarmeter”). At the time of fieldwork, the UK was still a member of the EU, and therefore the UK results are included in the report.
Overall, the results suggest respondents are not yet ready to fully adopt connected and automated vehicles. If connected and automated vehicles are set to play an important role to achieve the European policy objectives in the transport field, efforts will be needed to raise awareness of the options and their implications, and to engage citizens and build their trust with respect to this innovative type of technology
This is a report based on the synthesis of insights gained from a global open foresight project exploring the future of autonomous vehicles that was undertaken throughout 2019 and early 2020.
This is a report based on the synthesis of insights gained from a global open foresight project exploring the future of autonomous vehicles that was undertaken throughout 2019 and early 2020. It combines an analysis of existing research with opinion gained from multiple interviews and discussions that have taken place over the past year or so in Shanghai, London, Tokyo, Gothenburg, Austin and Toronto plus a series workshops held in Los Angeles, Frankfurt, Singapore, Wellington, Melbourne, Dubai, Singapore (at the global ITS World Congress event) and, finally, as a finale in Silicon Valley. The authors have done their best to accurately reflect the views they heard and the context in which they were expressed.
It is clear that, across the various markets, there are areas of alignment on some issues - but also notable nuances in approach to AVs that are different, country to country. From all discussions, nine key issues are emerging as significant - all of which are intricately inter-connected and collectively do indeed amount to a highly ‘wicked’ problem:
1. Fleets are now driving progress: In terms of the dominant business models, momentum is clearly behind both robo-taxis and truck fleets.
2. Automated trucks are coming: Freight has much to gain in terms of efficiency; this has regulatory momentum and wide industry support.
3. Safety is a pre-requisite: Expectations are high, but as many advances are already in process, improvements look likely.
4. Congestion is a conundrum: While the aim is for less congestion and the role of connectivity is pivotal, user behaviour and Transportation Network Company (TNC) strategies could initially mean more congestion.
5. Multiple options for the last mile: There are many alternatives in the mix, all bridging different needs and location gaps.
6. First vs widespread deployment: Where and why we see initial AV services may not necessarily align with where mass impact will occur.
7. Deeper collaboration will be needed: Moving from partnerships to long-term multi-party collaboration is seen as a critical enabler.
8. Technical standards may not be pivotal: Although comprehensive technical standards are advocated, they are not essential for AV; in some regions, safety standards will support regulation.
9. Regulators are influencing deployment: Proactive regulation is attracting companies, but the balance of light vs. heavy regulatory approaches may impact this.
This document describes the current state of automation-readiness in European cities, evidencing the need for guidance and knowledge exchange regarding CCAM.
This document describes the current state of automation-readiness in European cities, evidencing the need for guidance and knowledge exchange regarding CCAM. It presents the results of CoEXist’s stakeholder consultation activities and reflects on the main aspects to be considered. Furthermore, this document presents the developed automation-ready modelling tools and road infrastructure impact assessment methodology, respectively, setting a technical framework to investigate CCAM scenarios and evaluate expected effects on urban mobility. In addition, the automation-ready tools developed within the CoEXist project have been used to evaluate the traffic impact of automation for eight strategically selected use cases in four different cities. Also, the automation-ready planning framework is introduced, as well as its application in CoEXist cities for the development of concrete Action Plans, outlining key measures, the followed strategies and lessons learnt. In this way, this report delivers concrete guidance, tools and methodologies to enable cooperative action and informed decision-making about the deployment of Cooperative Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM), supporting road authorities in their way towards automation-readiness. Recommendations about how local authorities can shape CAV deployment in alignment with their policy goals: Authorities should look at planning for Cooperative Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM) as an element of a more fundamental change process: proactive action to get ready for the challenges of conducting planning processes towards CAV deployment.Planning for CCAM should be based on analyses of all modes and supported by all stakeholders (and not on an SAE perspective).Transport and infrastructure planning through adequate tools: automation-ready modelling functionalities & impact assessment framework, with strategically defined Key Performance Indicators in relation to local policy goals.In addition to (old) risks, new opportunities for sustainable urban development arise, which can potentially spur flexibility and create room for experiments. The key take-away of this document is that cities should be aware of the various opportunities, and challenges that arise from CCAM deployment. A structured & well-informed decision-making process, through holistic frameworks, is required to ensure sustainable and affordable services that align with local policy goals and respond to user needs.
U.S. DOT has long been a leader in research, development, and evaluation of technologies for transportation and strong supporter of adoption and use of new and innovative technologies—known as intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Through the leadership of the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO) and modal partners, the U.S. DOT has conducted and sponsored pioneering research and development in technology (RD&T) as well as evaluation of each next generation of ITS. These efforts have enhanced the safety, efficiency, and accessibility of surface transportation for almost three decades—resulting in lives saved, improved access and mobility, and increased economic productivity. This document serves as the ITS JPO’s strategic plan for 2020 through 2025. The plan describes the vision, mission, strategies, and research goals that will guide the ITS JPO in meeting key RD&T priorities for the Department, as described in the U.S. DOT’s Strategic Plan, 2018-2022¹ and the corresponding RD&T Strategic Plan. These Departmental documents provide the basis for the primary direction of ITS research activities. The Strategic Plan 2020 – 2025 offers greater detail and transparency about the role of the ITS JPO in RD&T within the Department.
Vision Accelerate the use of ITS to transform the way society moves.
Mission The ITS JPO leads collaborative and innovative research, development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems to improve the safety and mobility of people and goods.
To fulfil its mission, the ITS JPO employs a focused set of strategies to lead collaborative research, development, and implementation across U.S. DOT modal administrations and with the private and public sectors. These strategies create a framework (see figure below) in which the ITS JPO can identify and suggest technologies to transform transportation systems for the public good.
The European Automotive and Telecoms Alliance (EATA) was created in 2016 following an initiative by Commissioner Günther Oettinger.
The European Automotive and Telecoms Alliance (EATA) was created in 2016 following an initiative by Commissioner Günther Oettinger. It has become a unique forum for cooperation between Europe’s automotive and telecoms sectors: the main aim is to jointly explore how to best accelerate the deployment of connected and automated mobility (CAM) in Europe.
It is crucial that the new EU institutions continue focusing on creating the right enabling conditions across the EU to accelerate the deployment of new mobility solutions, leveraging both connectivity and automation. The goal remains to make Europe’s roads and vehicles safer and smarter by using state of-the-art technology. At the same time this supports the competitiveness of both the automotive and non-automotive companies, which have become active players in this new mobility ecosystem.
This Manifesto aims to give you our view on what policy actions require urgent attention. This is of utmost importance as, in the next five years, we will move from testing and pre-deployment of connected and automated vehicles to the actual introduction of these vehicles in Europe’s transport systems.
EATA core policy subjects are:
1. Enabling a clear framework to foster investment and innovation. Europe needs a holistic approach to CAM. One that promotes investment and innovation, while taking into account the complexity of the legal frameworks currently governing the automotive and telecommunications sectors.
2. Avoiding fragmentation by ensuring coordination of policy initiatives. The European Commission and European Parliament must ensure the coordination of policymaking between diﬀerent areas relevant to CAM. Our sectors stand ready to support the Commission and Parliament in this work.
3. Technology neutrality is critical for the development of CAM.
Avoid favouring one technology over another based on political priorities. Instead adopt a technology-neutral approach in which market-forces drive innovation and deployment.
4. Accelerating cooperation and leverage on the international stage.
Europe should further leverage its CAM leadership at the international level. European policies and regulations need to build on and shape international developments, while reﬂecting the global reach of the European industry.
One of the milestones of EATA has been the joint application to the CONCORDA (Connected Corridor for Driving Automation) project. The project, co-funded by the Connecting Europe Facility, will prepare European motorways for automated driving and high-density truck platooning with adequate connected services and technologies.
MANTRA is an acronym for “Making full use of Automation for National Transport and Road Authorities – NRA Core Business”.
MANTRA is an acronym for "Making full use of Automation for National Transport and Road Authorities – NRA Core Business". MANTRA responds to the questions posed as CEDR Automation Call 2017 Topic A: How will automation change the core business of NRA’s, by answering the following questions:
What are the influences of automation on the core business in relation to road safety, traffic efficiency, the environment, customer service, maintenance and construction processes?
How will the current core business on operations & services, planning & building and ICT change in the future?
Automation will find its way into real-world road-based mobilities. MANTRA deliverable 2.1 (Vehicle fleet penetrations and ODD coverage of NRA-relevant automation functions up to 2040) suggests discussing and preparing for these issues and this transition phase within road operators' management layers by means of five concepts / tools:
four priority use cases for AV, (Highway autopilot including highway convoy (L4) – 1 as 1st phase; Highly automated (freight) vehicles on open roads (L4); Commercial driverless vehicles (L4) as taxi services; Driverless maintenance and road works vehicles (L4)
Operational Design Domains (ODDs) for the use cases, including the road operator attempts to categorise their physical and digital infrastructures in support to them
estimated ODD coverages up to 2040
a set of fleet penetration rates for these priority use cases and
a first discussion on limitations of this approach to discussing an open future
Deliverable 4.2 (Consequences of automation functions to infrastructure) indicates to introduce three new road operator related ODD attributes of traffic management, infrastructure maintenance, and fleet supervision (centres). All three are elements, which affect the management and realisation of the ODDs but are not direct ODD requirements. Also adding a virtual road network or the network’s digital twin is a candidate for an ODD attribute, which supports the management and supervision of highly automated vehicles as a basic element for real-time simulation to assist in the choices of the traffic and fleet managers of the automated vehicles.
In addition, this report contains a list of attributes of the physical and digital infrastructure related to connected and highly automated vehicles.
The road map in deliverable 5.2 (Road map for developing road operator core business utilising connectivity and automation) consists of tables describing 92 actions, of which 22 priority actions, in different areas up to 2040. The actions are classified in three major categories:
Actions with no regret – actions useful also for human-operated vehicles to be carried out due to present needs and other developments;
Study and learn – actions to find out more about the technology, operation, benefits, costs and implementation issues in order to understand the potential, restrictions and feasibility of automated driving;
Key actions for deployment – actions to safeguard NRA interests and with major future impact on NRA investments and operations.
The aim of the Site automation practical learnings (STAPLE) project is to provide a comprehensive review of aspects of connected and automated aspects of test sites and beds to understand the impact of these sites on National Road Authorities (NRA) business and functions.
The aim of the Site automation practical learnings (STAPLE) project is to provide a comprehensive review of aspects of connected and automated aspects of test sites and beds to understand the impact of these sites on National Road Authorities (NRA) business and functions. The project provides necessary know-how on these sites to road administrations to support their core business activities.
The report presents practical learnings, assessment of impact and a socio-economic assessment.
Implications for NRAs have been broken down into specific categories as outlined below, with sub-categories detailing individual findings:
Testing environment, such as highway, urban, interurban
Type of facility, such as open and closed tracks, off-road trials, data trials and simulation trials
Use cases including highway chauffeur, platoons and HD mapping
NRA priority areas of safety, traffic efficiency, customer services as well as
maintenance and construction, and
Role of NRAs, such as test site shareholder, if they provide the road for trials, have an involvement with the test site or are a customer.
The report provides insights regarding various aspects related to impacts of test sites. In addition, a socio-economic assessment considers potential economic benefits of connected and automated driving use cases, as well as the potential social benefits.
Key findings include:
The level of involvement from NRAs can significantly influence the research focus and outputs of the test sites,
A combination of open and closed test site environments is desirable to gain the positive effects of respective environments,
NRAs have to adapt their organisations and strategical work in order to be able to fully realise the potential of different test sites,
NRAs also have a significant role to play in cooperating with research projects and making data available for industry to test and develop products and technology solutions,
Close cooperation between test sites, NRAs and manufacturers should be encouraged,
NRAs, test-sites and wider industry need to understand each other’s motivations and business cases,
What has worked in the past regarding training and qualifications, is unlikely to work in the future.
The project builds on previous work by CEDR and other national and European organizations, as well as on the consortium’s expertise from several relevant research initiatives.
The report presents a comprehensive analysis of research and innovation (R&I) in connected and automated transport in Europe in recent years, focusing on European Union (EU) funded projects.
The report presents a comprehensive analysis of research and innovation (R&I) in connected and automated transport in Europe in recent years, focusing on European Union (EU) funded projects. It identifies progress in several thematic fields and technologies, while highlighting the policy context and market activities in Europe and beyond. The analysis is divided into five sub-themes, each one addressing challenges and findings across modes, including multi-modal transport. Main findings on the R&I related to the five sub-themes are presented below:
on-board equipment Most projects covered by the analysis are at the early stages of development, at basic research. Therefore, many of the projects have set the foundation for further development.
connectivity and safety Projects that show deeper integration between fully or partially automated vehicles and connectivity with infrastructure, other vehicles and other connected devices and users (V2X) should be encouraged; especially those can have a positive impact on safety.
supporting infrastructure Some projects have researched the role of physical infrastructure in facilitating connected and automated transport. Since there are relatively few projects under this sub-theme that utilise data to improve physical infrastructure design with connected vehicles in mind, this could be an area for further research.
socio-economic impacts and human factors For several road transport projects, the research is based on the development of Apps. Future research should ensure that the latest state-of-the-art data sources and data processing techniques are used, as well as facilitating largescale trials and pilots.
large scale testing. Safety and security are an underlying theme of the majority of demonstration projects. Therefore, it would be beneficial to build upon the research undertaken by previous European-funded projects, as well as working alongside the private sector, to ensure that research is being optimised and to dissuade the development of repetitive projects, which do not establish a step change in the field.
Altogether, this report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of CAT R&I across Europe. The findings and the insights into the current R&I status and future needs, help the European Commission and the STRIA working group to better identify and prioritise R&I activities and provides valuable information to connected and automated transport stakeholders.
Relation with other roadmaps and plans: This report on research and innovation in connected and automated transport in Europe is one of the seven reports that support the implementation of the STRIA roadmaps. The TRIMIS team is consolidating and expanding the data repository to better assess R&I efforts of projects not funded by the EU or Member States. As part of this effort, information on patents and publications will be added. TRIMIS will continue to provide support to STRIA and, based on its research, provide recommendations to policymakers.
This roadmap gathered information in several open workshops with road authorities and operators, with the L3pilot project, with external experts in the field of cost and benefits considering the operational design domain, and with European Commission representatives.
This roadmap gathered information in several open workshops with road authorities and operators, with the L3pilot project, with external experts in the field of cost and benefits considering the operational design domain, and with European Commission representatives. Stakeholders, road authorities and operators, have already been considering their position on automation, on different levels, in several initiatives. This is a continuous effort since the field of automation is constantly evolving. This roadmap document is part of this continuous effort and focuses on findings/efforts and a direction for future work within the following topics: Impact on and role of physical and digital infrastructure, with a specific focus on the concept of Operational Design Domain (ODD)Cost and benefits of automation for road authorities and operators The document provides a list of 45 actions and recommendations many of which at least need to be addressed by road authorities/operators. For each action information is provided on other stakeholders involved, resources needed (money, time, power, cooperation, …) and timing (short term: next 3 years, medium term: next 10 years, long term: > 10 years). The emphasis is clearly in learning more about the developments and evolution of higher level (SAE 3-4) automated driving including the related ODD requirements. Goal is to be prepared for automated driving, have influence on the development so that road network operation does not suffer but rather improves, avoid excessive investments in vain, and to reap the potential benefits as soon as possible. It is premature to commence deployments unless road authorities and operators are certain that the solutions invested in will not become obsolete in the short term. Some of the short-term actions, can be carried out with no regrets as they will benefit the road network operations already today and involving human-operated vehicles. Such relate to, for instance, provision of data in digital form, digitalisation of key processes, implementing cybersecurity, and provision of connectivity of the physical and digital infrastructure. The actions and recommendations should be taken further by the road authorities and other stakeholders. Especially a structured dialogue between the road authorities/operators and the automated driving industry is considered important. It would be advisable to converge the large number of roadmap activities in Europe towards a smaller number of dedicated work streams.
This roadmap explains the key benefits and the different levels of automated driving (including autonomous driving and assisted driving), as well as all the associated terminology, in a clear and visual way.
This roadmap explains the key benefits and the different levels of automated driving (including autonomous driving and assisted driving), as well as all the associated terminology, in a clear and visual way. In addition, this roadmap also provides a checklist for policy makers which details the legislative framework that must be put in place at the international, EU and national level.
Moreover, it contains a timeline setting out the next steps that must be undertaken over the coming years in order to enable the deployment of automated vehicles on Europe’s roads in the near future.
In June 2020 ACEA published a discussion paper, which intends to convey joint messages and think paths from the vehicle manufacturers in view of a dialogue with the road authorities, road operators and cities. As vehicles and roads are partners in the transport ecosystem, a hybrid approach is preferred: Vehicles adapt to the existing road environment and can rely on onboard technology while roads adapt to high levels of automation including reengineering (physical and digital) where needed. Consistency between on-board vehicle capabilities, physical infrastructure characteristics and support from the digital infrastructure is needed. Minimum physical and digital requirements for road infrastructure are welcomed assets for automated vehicles. European standardisation and governance can be crucial here. The cost factor and longer implementation cycle of such adaptations of the infrastructure play a significant role, hence a step by step but phased approach must be implemented.
V2I/I2V connectivity can contribute to safety such as the feed of predictive traffic situations with blind spots and out of sight situations.
The development of HD maps has to be considered in a holistic public and private approach. The role of the different stakeholders has to be defined in order to assure a clear contribution to the common good while at the same time guaranteeing a competitive market.
This roadmap relates to the ACEA Discussion Paper: Roads of the future for automated driving (2020/06)
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are systems that assist the driver in carrying out the primary driving task.
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are systems that assist the driver in carrying out the primary driving task. ADAS observe the environment using sensors and are able to take over control of speed or driving direction, subject to the responsibility of the person at the wheel. Systems of this kind are also able to warn the driver in situations that the system considers dangerous.
Automation in road traffic can help improve road safety, but also engender new road safety risks. On the basis of accident investigations, a literature review and discussions with experts, the Dutch Safety Board has identified a number of types of new risks that are not yet sufficiently recognized or managed.
When they are placed on the market, ADAS are not yet fully mature. This means that following permission for use on public roads, they undergo further development. Together with the lack of knowledge among drivers, situations in which drivers fail to understand why the vehicle responds or indeed fails to respond in a particular way can quickly arise. In addition, drivers in vehicles fitted with ADAS play a different role than drivers in conventional cars, namely the role of operator.
In all its investigations, the Dutch Safety Board operates a reference framework. This framework lays out the standards with which the various stakeholders are expected to comply, in order to manage safety risks in a given field. Essentially, this reference framework is a question of responsible innovation. Based on this framework, the Dutch Safety Board has identified bottlenecks in terms of design, policy, regulation and supervision, data availability and learning capacity. In addition, the Dutch Safety Board provides in total six recommendations to the automotive manufacturers and the OICA and ACEA umbrella organizations (1), to the BOVAG and RAI Association (1), and to the Dutch Minister of Infrastructure and Water Management (4).
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