Last modified on July 18, 2024

List of Strategies & Action plans





Title Source Contributor Type Country Date Link Abstract
1st High Level Meeting on connected and automated driving High Level Structural Dialogue on Connected and Automated Driving EU, Member State Report Netherlands 2017-02-15 Link

A High Level Meeting was held in the Netherlands on 15 February 2017. It as attended by representatives from 24 EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland. Transport and Telecom ministers, the European Commission and parties from the automotive and telecom industries were also present.

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2nd High Level Structural Dialogue High Level Structural Dialogue on Connected and Automated Driving EU, Member State Report 2017-01-01 Link

Mobility is facing the greatest challenges we have seen in decades – with increasing globalisation, massive traffic growth, growing mobility needs and ambitious climate change goals.

New technologies provide us with the historic opportunity to meet these challenges successfully and make transport considerably safer, cleaner and more efficient. Among these technologies are new drivetrain technologies such as electric mobility, transport connectivity, car sharing models and, in particular, automated driving.

All these developments have been initiated and we are making every effort to put them on the roads as fast as possible.

Within the framework of the 2nd High Level Structural Dialogue, we, the EU- and EFTA Member States, the European Commission and associations of the automotive and telecom industry, have clearly focused on automated and connected driving and have developed an action plan to further advance the technology at European level.

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3rd High Level Meeting on connected and Automated Driving High Level Structural Dialogue on Connected and Automated Driving EU, Member State Report 2018-01-01 Link
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4th High Level Meeting on Automated and Connected Mobility High Level Structural Dialogue on Connected and Automated Driving EU, Member State, Industry Report 2018-01-01 Link

The High Level Dialogue on Automated & Connected Mobility was established with the Declaration of Amsterdam from April 2016. Its key objective was to focus on a learning-by-experience approach thereby realising the positive potentials of automated and connected driving as well as aligning national frameworks. Vienna’s 4th High Level Meeting specifically focused on the use case with the biggest long-term potential for a sustainable transport system: automated and shared mobility services!

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5G Strategic Deployment Agenda for Connected and Automated Mobility in Europe 5G PPP EC DG CNECT Roadmap 2020-10-02 Link
This document sets out the shared view of a wide group of stakeholders supporting the objectives of the 5G Strategic Deployment Agenda (SDA) for Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM) in Europe, based on future-proof 5G-enabled infrastructure, technologies and vehicles. Furthermore, this document concentrates on identifying the key elements to progress along the main elements mentioned below. The initial goal is to stimulate investments into a network of pan-European 5G  Corridors for Connected and Automated Mobility as a first strategic step towards large scale deployment of 5G for CAM  and other high value services related to connected vehicles, road operation and overall smart transportation. In a stakeholder workshop in January 2019, held by the 5G-PPP Automotive working group, the stakeholder community decided to develop three main elements as part of the SDA: (i) Deployment Objectives; (ii) Cooperation Models; (iii) Regulatory Innovation. (i)           The parties participating in the development of this SDA have defined 8 principles that underpin their common vision for the 5G SDA for CAM. (ii)         The following ecosystem categories have been identified:
  • Driving safety and automation sub-system
  • Mobile broadband emergency services
  • Uptake of high-value commercial 5G services along transport paths
The promoters of this SDA strongly agree with the objective of starting with the deployment of the identified set of 5G corridors, taking advantage of the wider dynamic created by the planned public financing. (iii)        The regulatory environment will play an important role to enable innovative business approaches and incentivise investments in mobile network expansion for CAM. This concerns in particular:
  • The different network sharing options.
  • The co-investment approaches and wholesale-only model.
  • The spectrum needs some harmonization assignment and roll-out obligation.
  • Regulatory provision for seamless connectivity.
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5GAA Updated 2030 Roadmap for Advanced Driving Use Cases, Connectivity Technologies, and Radio Spectrum Needs 5G Automotive Association Industry Roadmap 2022-11-21 Link

This white paper synthesises 5GAA vision of the future and the association’s C-V2X roadmap in its latest version (since the publication of the initial 5GAA roadmap in 2020). It focuses on advanced driving use cases which pave the way to automated driving, teleoperation, automated valet parking, and sensor sharing.

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A CAV Roadmap for Scotland Transport Scotland Public Authority Roadmap United Kingdom 2019-12-01 Link
This CAV Roadmap for Scotland explores the opportunities associated with the adoption of CAV technologies on Scotland’s roads and the challenges in their deployment. It sets out the relationship between CAV technologies and the Scottish Government’s transport and economic ambitions. It also explores where and how CAV technologies could be utilised, where and how we can benefit from contributing to their development and what interventions and initiatives might be required for us to unlock these opportunities.  

CAV is a key enabler of delivering the Programme for Government, because CAV technologies will help drive inclusive, environmentally sustainable growth throughout Scotland, within a safe, enhanced and integrated transport system. Scotland is ‘open for business’ in CAV developments and is well-positioned to build on existing industrial and academic assets and capabilities whilst simultaneously developing new skills and capabilities.
Scotland is integral to the future of CAVs, because:
- Transport Scotland can facilitate testing on live road environments;
the Scottish strategic road network is diverse;
- Scotland has strengths in simulation and virtual reality;
- Scotland’s R&D sector will continue to develop sensors, image processing and AI solutions with support from the Scottish Government;
- the Scottish Government acknowledges the benefits of connectivity and automation but is also aware of the importance of an efficient and accessible CAV supply chain to prepare for the changes the technology could bring;
- Scotland welcomes collaboration, investment, and involvement from industry, academia, and public sector partners.

Relation with other roadmaps/plans:

Key examples of Transport Scotland’s active engagement are the pilot project CAVForth and the highly regarded annual CAV Scotland conference.

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A roadmap for developing automation and robotics in the transport sector 2017–2019 Finnish Transport Agency Member State Roadmap Finland 2017-01-01 Link

Increasing intelligent automation in transport is a key for expanding the digitalization of transport systems and mobility services, thus improving their safety, efficiency and smooth operation. This Roadmap sets out the actions within the Ministry of Transport and Communications’ administrative branch that aim to promote transport automation during the current government term (2017-2019). The Roadmap supports the key projects of Prime Minister Sipilä’s Government Programme concerning the creation of a digital growth environment for transport. Transport automation has advanced and is advancing at a significant pace. Road transport and shipping are witnessing the fastest development leaps. The definition of traffic is undergoing a transformation meaning that cars, in particular, are evolving into new type of mobile devices. While there is no vehicle industry in Finland, we are nonetheless, one of the world's leading countries in transport information technologies. Our technology companies possess considerable expertise in the automation of all modes of transport, especially concerning smart technologies for transport, data utilisation, artificial intelligence and information security issues. Equally noteworthy is the Finnish proficiency in marine automation and ship-building, which are globally recognized. The Roadmap covers three areas: 1) intelligent automation and robotics for service development, 2) utilisation of data and traffic management for intelligent automation and robotics, and 3) the development of physical and digital infrastructure for automated transport. For each of these three areas, the Roadmap describes both already on-going actions as well as required measures that are needed in the future to promote transport automation. Key actions for the entire administrative branch include exerting influence on the international regulation of different transport modes, enabling experimentations, developing an interoperable infrastructure and devices for transport automation, introducing 5G network technology, increasing the amount, quality and usage of transport data and improving the quality of satellite positioning. We will also invest in and expand our understanding of responsibility and ethics.

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Austrian Action Programme on Automated Mobility (2019-2022) Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology Member State Strategy Austria 2018-01-01 Link
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Automated and Connected Vehicles Policy Framework for Canada Policy and Planning Support Committee (PPSC) Working group on Automated and Connected Vehicles Public authority Strategy Canada 2019-01-01 Link

Automated and connected vehicles (AV/CVs) promise to improve the safety and efficiency of our transportation system, and to bring new economic opportunities for Canadians. They have the potential to reduce collisions, traffic congestion and emissions, and to improve mobility for all Canadians. At the same time, if we don’t manage these technologies well, their introduction could actually lead to more traffic, inequitable access to mobility and negative environmental impacts. The future of AV/CVs could be highly disruptive, for better or worse. How government and industry collectively prepare for this change will have a profound effect on how we capitalize on opportunities and lessen risks associated with these technologies. Governments and industry must be forward thinking. We need a strategic and aspirational vision for AV/CVs. We need to ask ourselves how evolving technologies will fit into our society and economy in a way that helps us achieve transportation solutions and future mobility goals for all users of our transportation system. Canada’s vision for the future of our transportation system is a system that is safe, secure, green, efficient and sustainable, and that improves the quality of life for all Canadians. We don’t know the future impacts of AV/CVs, but these technologies are tools we can use to help Canada progress towards this vision. It is critical that governments and industry continue discussing how AV/CVs can shape the future of mobility in a positive and purposeful way. Canada has an opportunity to be a leader in this space, given our well-established automotive industry and strengths in information and communications (ICT) technology. Over the past two years, both the public and private sectors have made major investments in AV/CV research and engineering centres across Canada. High-tech companies have also invested significantly in research and development in this area. Small and medium-sized companies, university researchers and engineering graduates are attracting the attention of global automotive and technology companies increasingly looking to Canada for AV/CV expertise. This Policy Framework provides a set of policy principles for all jurisdictions in Canada to follow as we safely test and deploy these vehicles. This framework also focuses on policy and regulatory issues we will need to address as we prepare for a future with AV/CVs on Canadian roads.

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Autonomous Vehicles Code of practice for testing in Belgium Federal Public Service- Mobility and Transport – Belgium transport authority Member State Strategy Belgium 2016-01-01 Link

The present Code regulates the testing of automated vehicles in a real world environment in Belgium. In concrete terms, tests of this nature may take place on condition that the vehicle is used in accordance with the road traffic legislation and providing a test driver is present, or, in certain specific cases, minimally a test operator, who takes responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle.

It is up to the manufacturer or the testing organisation to ensure that innovative technologies for automated or fully automated vehicles are developed and tested thoroughly before being brought onto the market. Much of this development can be done in test laboratories or on dedicated test tracks and proving grounds. However, to ensure that these technologies are capable of 'safe behaviour' in the various situations that may present themselves, they will need to be subjected to controlled testing in a 'real world environment' also. Thus, the testing of new automated vehicle technologies on public roads or in other public places should be facilitated whilst care must be taken that these tests are designed and conducted in order to minimise potential risk.

This Code of Practice has been published to help manufacturers and/or testing organisations intending to test these technologies in real conditions. This Code of Practice provides clear guidelines and recommendations to maintain safety during this testing phase.

The present Code of Practice does not contain any actual rules of law but has been developed to promote responsible planning and carrying out of tests. Testing organisations shall use this Code in conjunction with detailed knowledge of the statutory, regulatory and technological framework.

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CAD consolidated roadmap Year 1 ARCADE Member State, Industry Roadmap 2019-01-01 Link
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CCAM Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) 2021-2027 CCAM Partnership EU, Member State, Industry Roadmap 2024-01-18 Link

The CCAM Partnership Vision is to ensure European leadership in safe and sustainable road transport through automation. With full integration of CCAM in the transport system, the CCAM Partnership shall contribute to achieving the expected positive impacts for society (safety, environment, inclusiveness), economy (European competitiveness) and science.

For this vision and expected impacts, a multitude of complex challenges need to be addressed and solved at societal, human, technical, regulatory, economic and operational level.

The Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) for CCAM is the multiannual roadmap linking the vision of the Partnership to a portfolio of R&I actions needed to deliver the Partnership’s objectives and achieve the expected impacts. The CCAM SRIA is the basis for CCAM call topics for R&i activities under the Horizon Europe Work Programmes.

Even though the SRIA is covering the full duration of the Partnership, it is updated during the lifetime of the Partnership to reflect any major technological advancement, new emerging challenges, or evolving societal needs.

In the CCAM SRIA updated in 2023, a new sub-chapter titled "Other recent developments" has been introduced to account for ongoing changes in the field, and encompassing diverse elements impacting the CCAM Partnership's trajectory:

  • Evolving societal dynamics
  • Shifting work and mobility patterns
  • Environmental and equitable mobility focus
  • CCAM technologies progress
  • Enabling technologies and data sharing updates
  • Hurdles and learning opportunities
  • Synergies and sustainable transitions
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CEDR Position on Road Vehicle Automation Conference of European Directors of Roads (CEDR) EU, Member State Strategy 2016-01-01 Link
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Connected Automated Driving Roadmap European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC) EU (public authorities), Industry, research providers (CEDR CAD work group) Roadmap 2019-03-01 Link

This roadmap for Connected Automated Driving contributes to the long-term vision of ERTRAC for the transport system. In one sentence: by 2050, vehicles should be electrified, automated and shared.

The main objective of the ERTRAC Roadmap is to provide a joint stakeholders view on the development of Connected Automated Driving in Europe. The Roadmap starts with common definitions of automation levels and systems, and then identifies the challenges for the implementation of higher levels of automated driving functions. Development paths are provided for three different categories of vehicles.

The Key Challenges identified within the three areas (Users & society, System & services, and Vehicles & technology) should lead to efforts of Research and Development: ERTRAC calls for pre-competitive collaboration among European industry and research providers. The key role of public authorities is also highlighted: for policy and regulatory needs, and support to deployment, with the objective of European harmonisation. Connected Automated Driving must therefore take a key role in the European Transport policy, since it can support several of its objectives and societal challenges, such as road safety, congestion, decarbonisation, social inclusiveness, etc. The overall efficiency of the transport system can be much increased thanks to automation.

Relation with other roadmaps/plans:

The previous “Automated Driving Roadmap” of ERTRAC was issued in 2017 and provided updated definitions and development paths, an updated list of EU and international activities, and an extended list of R&D challenges. This new 2019 version presents again a full update of these chapters, and given that the topic of connectivity is becoming progressively more important, it includes connectivity related aspects and the addition of infrastructure related topics. A collaboration with the CEDR CAD work group helped a lot to bring these additional aspects into the document. This new version also builds on the STRIA CAT Roadmap developed by the European Commission.

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Connected, Cooperative and Automated Mobility Roadmap European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC) EU, Industry Roadmap 2022-02-18 Link

Automated driving is becoming increasingly important, and will place demands to NRAs (National Road Authorities) in very near future, before 2020. While automated driving will bring about several benefits to NRAs, it will cause also costs and changes in the traditional roles of the NRAs. The cooperation with key stakeholders such as vehicle manufacturers, the telecommunication industry and the IT industry will intensify as a consequence. Closer collaboration with globally operating industries makes it necessary for NRAs to intensify their European and intercontinental cooperation (Americas, Asia-Pacific). The development will also bring a number of new challenges concerning legal issues, data security, and road safety especially in the transition phase towards high automation. Coming to full automation, general mobility and interworking with other transport means will fundamentally change. Furthermore, totally new players are expected to enter the market.

In April 2016, the European Transport Ministers gave out a declaration on connected and automated driving, indicating strong EU and Member State support to developing and deploying road vehicle automation. A week later, the CEDR Governing Board discussed road vehicle automation in a dedicated workshop facilitated by CEDR Task Group “Utilising ITS for NRAs”. This position paper reflects the GB view based on that workshop. In doing so, this position paper complements the CEDR ITS Position Paper (issued 2014).

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Cooperative ITS towards Cooperative, Connected and Automated Mobility (C-ITS platform) – Phase II Final report and Annexes European Commission EU Report 2017-01-01 Link

This report is the deliverable of the second phase of the C-ITS platform (July 2016 – September 2017) which further develops a shared vision on the interoperable deployment of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) towards cooperative, connected and automated mobility (CCAM) in the European Union. This includes making tangible progress towards the definition of implementation conditions for topics already discussed during the first phase1, but also recognizes and further investigates the mutual benefits that future CITS services will bring in terms of automation. All members of the C-ITS platform believe that the ultimate goal is the full convergence of all developments under Cooperative, Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM), making use of the digitisation of transport.

In 9 working groups, the C-ITS Platform developed policy recommendations and proposals for action for the Commission as well as other relevant actors along the C-ITS value chain. The first set of outcomes of the second phase of the C-ITS Platform addresses the common technical and legal framework necessary for the deployment of C-ITS and is grouped under section Phase I continued – support for deployment of C-ITS. The second set of outcomes focuses on CCAM, i.e. they explicitly also take the needs and possibilities of higher levels of automation into consideration, and are grouped under section Beyond C-ITS, towards Connected, Cooperative and Automated Mobility (CCAM).

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Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP) Automated Driving for Universal Services R&D Plan SIP-adus (Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program [SIP] Automated Driving for Universal Services) National authority, Industry, Academia Report Japan 2019-07-01 Link
This R&D Plan aims to help solve social issues, including reducing traffic accidents and congestion, ensuring mobility for vulnerable road users, and mitigating the driver shortage and reducing the costs of logistics and mobility services by practically applying, deploying, and expanding automated driving, thereby raising quality of life throughout society.   In this R&D plan four areas are prioritized, for each area activities, objectives and goals have been defined. This summary contains for each priority area a list of main research topics, which are the basis for the planned activities.  

Development and validation (FOTs) of automated driving systems:
- FOTs in Tokyo waterfront area
- FOTs for the social implementation of transportation and logistics services in local regions
- FOTs of data interrelation, focusing on road traffic environmental data related to automated driving

Development of core technologies for the practical implementation of automated driving:
- Road traffic environmental data utilization technology
- Safety evaluation technologies
- Other core technologies

Fostering of public acceptance of automated driving:
- Delivery of information to the public and fostering of understanding
- Investigation and research for the resolution of social issues by automated driving technologies

Enhancement of international cooperation:
- Delivery of information to the world through SIP-adus Workshop (international workshop) and other opportunities
- Promotion of joint research in automated driving with overseas research organizations
Relation with other roadmaps/plans:
Public-Private ITS Initiative/Roadmaps (Japan - 2019/06)
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Declaration of Amsterdam “Cooperation in the field of connected and automated driving” Member States, European Commission, Industry EU, Member State, Industry Strategy 2016-01-01 Link

As a result of developments in the automotive, ICT and telecoms sectors and the introduction of connected and automated vehicles1, mobility will change more in the next twenty years than in the past one hundred years. Further automation of vehicles and advances in information and communication technologies provide excellent opportunities to improve traffic flows and to make transport safer, cleaner and easier. This development could also strengthen the economy of Europe. Ultimately, once fully automated driving becomes possible on a large scale, there may be societal benefits beyond the aforementioned goals, in terms of social inclusion, improved mobility services in rural areas and cities, the development of mobility as a service and lower travel costs. These advantages should bring extra flexibility in door-to-door mobility, especially in the field of public transport, also to the benefit of the aging population, vulnerable road users and disabled persons. Furthermore, this innovation could be linked to other important developments such as a shared economy, decarbonisation of transport and the transition towards a zero-emissions society and the circular economy.

Besides technological progress, there are further challenges and uncertainties related to development of connected and automated vehicles. There are important questions to be answered regarding security, social inclusion, use of data, privacy, liability, ethics, public support and the co-existence of connected and automated vehicles with manually controlled vehicles.

Member States support the development of connected and automated driving through a range of initiatives, such as truck platooning, autopilot on the highway and the establishment of ITScorridors. Connected and automated vehicles are already being tested on public roads and are gradually being introduced on the market for commercial use. In the early stages of this transition, open competition between different models and initiatives is needed to instigate creativity and innovation. However, both industry and users demand that new services and systems should be interoperable and compatible when crossing borders. The European Commission has taken important steps with the Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) platform, the Round Table on Connected and Automated Driving and the Gear 2030 initiative. Nevertheless, a more coordinated approach is called for between Member States and at European level to remove barriers and to promote a step-by-step learning-by-experience approach such as the European truck platooning challenge. It is essential to support an exchange of information of results and best practices by linking and integrating such initiatives.

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Development of automated and connected road mobility – State of play, challenges and actions for the national strategy French Ministries of Ecological Transition and Territories, Economy, Interior and Overseas Territories, Transport, Industry and Digital Member State Strategy France 2023-01-30 Link

As early as 2018, France adopted a strategy for the development of autonomous vehicles, updated in 2020, with two objectives: develop the production of automated technologies and modernize mobility services.

This 2022 update explicitly takes into account connectivity issues, and enlarges the scope to mobility services made possible by automation and connectivity. It aims to accelerate France's commitment to regulatory, technological and economic models that will make the country a leader in the deployment of the most relevant and achievable use cases.

This 2022-2025 strategy is based on four key actions:

  • Prioritize and coordinate connectivity systems and data exchange deployments;
  • Finance investment projects in industrial supply of automated road mobility, ambitious service pilots, or first commercial deployments, in particular via France 2030 and by mobilizing European credits;
  • Support volunteer local authorities and operators in the deployment of passenger services;
  • Finalize the legal framework for automated freight and logistics.
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Development of Autonomous Vehicles Strategic Orientations for Public Action French Ministry for the Ecological and Solidary Transition Member State Strategy France 2018-01-01 Link

This document provides a summary of the strategic framework that will structure the French government’s policy actions dedicated to the development of automated or driverless vehicles. The publication of this document, which follows a wide-ranging public consultation process, constitutes the conclusion of the first stage of the project I have been entrusted with by the Ministries of the Interior, Economy and Finances, and Transport, as well as the Secretary of State for digital affairs.

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Draft Roadmap and Action Plan to facilitate automated driving on TEN road network European ITS platform (EU EIP) EU, Member State, Industry Roadmap 2017-01-01 Link
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Dubai Self-Driving Transport Strategy & Roadmap Roads and Transport Authority (RTA) Member State Strategy 2020-01-06 Link
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EATA Roadmap European Automotive and Telecom Alliance (EATA) EU, Industry Roadmap 2019-01-01 Link
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Ensuring American Leadership in Automated Vehicle Technologies Department of Transportation (US DoT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Public Authority Strategy United States 2020-01-01 Link
The document presents a unifying posture to inform collaborative efforts in automated vehicles for all stakeholders and outlines past and current federal government efforts to address these areas of concern. It establishes US government principles that consist of three core interests, each of which is comprised of several sub-areas:

1. Protect Users and Communities
* Prioritize Safety
* Emphasize Security and Cybersecurity
* Ensure Privacy and Data Security
* Enhance Mobility and Accessibility

2. Promote Efficient Markets
* Remain Technology Neutral
* Protect American Innovation and Creativity
* Modernize Regulations

3. Facilitate Coordinated Efforts
* Promote Consistent Standards and Policies
* Ensure a Consistent Federal Approach
* Improve Transportation System-Level Effects  

The document motivates a future for the US in which it is a global leader in the automated vehicle technology and describes the benefits of such a position. Furthermore, it lists administration efforts that support the growth and leadership in this area, as well as the activities and opportunities the US government to take towards collaboration.

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ERTRAC Road Transport Vision 2050 European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC) EU, Industry, Academia Roadmap 2024-06-24 Link

ERTRAC's new Road Transport Vision 2050, updated thanks to the STREnGth_M project, aims to address challenges such as climate change, pollution, demographic change, limited resources and global competition.

The document includes five sub-visions addressing important societal objectives such as environmental sustainability, efficiency, and resilience:

  • “All people and goods can reach their destinations in a way that is healthy, safe, affordable, reliable and comfortable all across Europe”
  • “Climate-neutral, zero pollution road transport satisfying circular economy and resource efficiency needs”
  • “Infrastructure and traffic management provide highly efficient road network services at competitive cost with minimized congestion, regardless of actual conditions and disturbances”
  • “Safe and secure mobility for all road users at any time”
  • “Europe’s road transport research and industry as the world leader in innovation, services and production”

The document also outlines the technological, regulatory, and organizational enablers which need to be in place by 2050 to realise the vision.

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EU Roadmap for Truck Platooning European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) EU, Industry Roadmap 2017-01-01 Link
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European CCAM Outlook 2023 – A Review of CCAM Advancements and Applications in Europe’s Public Transport Sector Interreg (European Regional Development Fund) NorthSea Region PAV EU Report 2023-05-22 Link

The PAV (Planning for Autonomous Vehicles) project report provides a holistic overview of current and future developments in connected, cooperative, and automated mobility (CCAM) for public transport in Europe.

The report examines the impact of technological, regulatory, societal, and market forces on CCAM, while highlighting the key drivers and barriers shaping the deployment of connected, cooperative, automated vehicles (CCAVs).

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Expectations and Concerns of Connected and Automated Driving Joint Research Centre (JRC) Report 2020-04-01 Link
The aim of this survey is to measure public awareness and attitudes towards connected and automated driving considering their role in the European strategy to improve road transport in terms of safety and efficiency as also laid down in the recent European Green Deal, and the 2018 Communication on connected and automated mobility. In this light, this survey seeks EU citizens’ views on automated and connected vehicles and sheds light on how comfortable they would feel with such vehicles as part of their daily lives.

The survey’s objectives are to:
* Assess EU citizens’ awareness of automated vehicles and their experience with automated or semi-automated driving functions
* Measure attitudes towards driving in or interacting with automated vehicles on the road
* Evaluate citizens’ willingness to purchase and use automated vehicles
* Determine what citizens expect with regard to automated vehicles.  

This survey was carried out by the Kantar network in the 28 Member States of the EU, between 11 and 29 September 2019. A total of 27,565 respondents from different social and demographic groups were interviewed face to face, at home, in their mother tongue. The survey was carried out on behalf of the European Commission’s Joint Research Center. The Methodology used is that of Eurobarmeter surveys as carried out by the Dictorate-General for Communication (“media monitoring and Eurobarmeter”). At the time of fieldwork, the UK was still a member of the EU, and therefore the UK results are included in the report.  

Overall, the results suggest respondents are not yet ready to fully adopt connected and automated vehicles. If connected and automated vehicles are set to play an important role to achieve the European policy objectives in the transport field, efforts will be needed to raise awareness of the options and their implications, and to engage citizens and build their trust with respect to this innovative type of technology


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Final Report Ethics Commission Automated and Connected Driving Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure Member State Report Germany 2017-01-01 Link
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Future Agenda open foresight; the future of autonomous vehicles; Global Insights gained from Multiple Expert Discussions High Level Structural Dialogue on Connected and Automated Driving Future Agenda Limited Report United Kingdom 2020-04-01 Link
This is a report based on the synthesis of insights gained from a global open foresight project exploring the future of autonomous vehicles that was undertaken throughout 2019 and early 2020. It combines an analysis of existing research with opinion gained from multiple interviews and discussions that have taken place over the past year or so in Shanghai, London, Tokyo, Gothenburg, Austin and Toronto plus a series workshops held in Los Angeles, Frankfurt, Singapore, Wellington, Melbourne, Dubai, Singapore (at the global ITS World Congress event) and, finally, as a finale in Silicon Valley. The authors have done their best to accurately reflect the views they heard and the context in which they were expressed. It is clear that, across the various markets, there are areas of alignment on some issues - but also notable nuances in approach to AVs that are different, country to country. From all discussions, nine key issues are emerging as significant - all of which are intricately inter-connected and collectively do indeed amount to a highly ‘wicked’ problem: 1.    Fleets are now driving progress: In terms of the dominant business models, momentum is clearly behind both robo-taxis and truck fleets. 2.    Automated trucks are coming: Freight has much to gain in terms of efficiency; this has regulatory momentum and wide industry support. 3.    Safety is a pre-requisite: Expectations are high, but as many advances are already in process, improvements look likely. 4.    Congestion is a conundrum: While the aim is for less congestion and the role of connectivity is pivotal, user behaviour and Transportation Network Company (TNC) strategies could initially mean more congestion. 5.    Multiple options for the last mile: There are many alternatives in the mix, all bridging different needs and location gaps. 6.    First vs widespread deployment: Where and why we see initial AV services may not necessarily align with where mass impact will occur. 7.    Deeper collaboration will be needed: Moving from partnerships to long-term multi-party collaboration is seen as a critical enabler. 8.    Technical standards may not be pivotal: Although comprehensive technical standards are advocated, they are not essential for AV; in some regions, safety standards will support regulation. 9.    Regulators are influencing deployment: Proactive regulation is attracting companies, but the balance of light vs. heavy regulatory approaches may impact this.
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GEAR 2030 – High Level Group on the Competitiveness and Sustainable Growth of the Automotive Industry in the European Union – Final report High Level Group GEAR 2030, European Commission EU, Industry Report 2017-01-01 Link

The EU's automotive sector enjoys a central place in Europe's industrial landscape. It is the employer of millions of Europeans, often in highly skilled jobs and a major investor in research and development. The sector is one of the most competitive in the world and generates a substantial trade surplus for the EU. It is at a junction of many important EU policies including; competitiveness, research, energy, environment, transport, single market, etc. Today's automotive industry is at a turning point: it must embrace the upcoming digital revolution, automated and connected driving, environmental challenges (such as climate goals), societal changes and growing globalisation.

In order to develop a co-ordinated and effective EU approach for the automotive industry in this changing landscape, the European Commission established the High Level Group (HLG) GEAR 2030 in October 2015. The group brought together Member States' authorities and key stakeholders representing the industry, services, consumers and environmental protection and road safety. This Report sets out the HLG's analysis of the situation and recommendations to address the main challenges and opportunities for the sector in the run-up to 2030 and beyond. It examines the developments in global competitiveness and changes in the value chain. In this context, given the profound impacts of the transformation on the entire value chain, the HLG decided to focus on connected and automated driving (CAD) and on zero emissions and zero emissions-capable vehicles (ZEVs and ZECs). However, the HLG also recognises that cleaner internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles will have an important role in the on-going transformation of the sector. They will be especially important in the case of heavy duty vehicles to help their transition to low and zero emission technologies.

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HTSM Automotive Roadmap 2020 – 2030 HOLLAND HIGH TECH Industry Roadmap Netherlands 2020-10-28 Link
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Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Office: Strategic Plan 2020–2025 United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) A variety of public and private groups Strategy United States 2020-03-01 Link
US DOT has long been a leader in research, development, and evaluation of technologies for transportation and strong supporter of adoption and use of new and innovative technologies—known as intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Through the leadership of the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO) and modal partners, the U.S. DOT has conducted and sponsored pioneering research and development in technology (RD&T) as well as evaluation of each next generation of ITS. These efforts have enhanced the safety, efficiency, and accessibility of surface transportation for almost three decades—resulting in lives saved, improved access and mobility, and increased economic productivity.   This document serves as the ITS JPO’s strategic plan for 2020 through 2025. The plan describes the vision, mission, strategies, and research goals that will guide the ITS JPO in meeting key RD&T priorities for the Department, as described in the U.S. DOT’s Strategic Plan, 2018-2022¹ and the corresponding RD&T Strategic Plan. These Departmental documents provide the basis for the primary direction of ITS research activities. The Strategic Plan 2020 – 2025 offers greater detail and transparency about the role of the ITS JPO in RD&T within the Department.

Vision Accelerate the use of ITS to transform the way society moves.
Mission The ITS JPO leads collaborative and innovative research, development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems to improve the safety and mobility of people and goods.  

To fulfil its mission, the ITS JPO employs a focused set of strategies to lead collaborative research, development, and implementation across U.S. DOT modal administrations and with the private and public sectors. These strategies create a framework (see figure below) in which the ITS JPO can identify and suggest technologies to transform transportation systems for the public good.
Relation with other roadmaps/plans:

1.    U.S. Department of Transportation Strategic Plan for FY 2018-2022:
2.     Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Strategic Plan 2015-2019:
3.    U.S. Department of Transportation Annual Modal Research Plan for ITS JPO 2017-2018:
4.    History of Intelligent Transportation Systems:
5.    U.S. Department of Transportation Research, Development and Technology Strategic Plan:
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Manifesto European Automotive and Telecoms Alliance European Automotive and Telecoms Alliance (EATA) Industry Roadmap 2019-03-01 Link
The European Automotive and Telecoms Alliance (EATA) was created in 2016 following an initiative by Commissioner Günther Oettinger. It has become a unique forum for cooperation between Europe’s automotive and telecoms sectors: the main aim is to jointly explore how to best accelerate the deployment of connected and automated mobility (CAM) in Europe. It is crucial that the new EU institutions continue focusing on creating the right enabling conditions across the EU to accelerate the deployment of new mobility solutions, leveraging both connectivity and automation. The goal remains to make Europe’s roads and vehicles safer and smarter by using state of-the-art technology. At the same time this supports the competitiveness of both the automotive and non-automotive companies, which have become active players in this new mobility ecosystem. This Manifesto aims to give you our view on what policy actions require urgent attention. This is of utmost importance as, in the next five years, we will move from testing and pre-deployment of connected and automated vehicles to the actual introduction of these vehicles in Europe’s transport systems. EATA core policy subjects are: 1.    Enabling a clear framework to foster investment and innovation.  Europe needs a holistic approach to CAM. One that promotes investment and innovation, while taking into account the complexity of the legal frameworks currently governing the automotive and telecommunications sectors. 2.    Avoiding fragmentation by ensuring coordination of policy initiatives. The European Commission and European Parliament must ensure the coordination of policymaking between different areas relevant to CAM. Our sectors stand ready to support the Commission and Parliament in this work. 3.    Technology neutrality is critical for the development of CAM. Avoid favouring one technology over another based on political priorities. Instead adopt a technology-neutral approach in which market-forces drive innovation and deployment. 4.    Accelerating cooperation and leverage on the international stage. Europe should further leverage its CAM leadership at the international level. European policies and regulations need to build on and shape international developments, while reflecting the global reach of the European industry. One of the milestones of EATA has been the joint application to the CONCORDA (Connected Corridor for Driving Automation) project. The project, co-funded by the Connecting Europe Facility, will prepare European motorways for automated driving and high-density truck platooning with adequate connected services and technologies.
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National enforcement guidelines for automated vehicles National Transport Commission (NTC) Public authority Strategy Australia 2017-01-01 Link

These national enforcement guidelines provide guidance about how the requirement of proper control in Australian Road Rule 297 should apply to vehicles with automated functions. The guidelines also confirm that the human driver is responsible for compliance with road traffic laws when a vehicle has conditional automation engaged at a point in time.

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National Land Transport Technology Action Plan Transport and Infrastructure Council Public authority Strategy Australia 2019-01-01 Link
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On the road to automated mobility: An EU strategy for mobility of the future (COM(2018) 283 final) European Commission EU Strategy 2018-05-17 Link

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions

This Communication outlines the common EU approach and vision towards connected and automated mobility set out in a European agenda including supporting actions to:

  • develop and deploy key technologies, services and infrastructure;
  • position Europe as a global leader in CCAM across transport modes;
  • ensure that EU legal and policy frameworks are ready to support deployment;
  • address societal and environmental concerns towards public acceptance

The main recommendation of the Communication revolves around the need to coordinate EU instruments at research and regulatory level, alongside private sector engagements and funding programmes within Member States, to accelerate the transformation towards a safer, more resilient, and efficient transport sector capable of meeting diverse population needs.

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Paths to a self-driving future The Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis (KiM), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment Member State Strategy Netherlands 2017-01-01 Link

A future in which self-driving cars define the traffic landscape: what will this look like and when could we expect this future to arrive, either solely on highways or everywhere? Great uncertainty surrounds these questions. If technological development is rapid, the technology affordable, self-driving cars attractive to car drivers and the societal impacts positive, a ‘self-driving future’ is highly probable. Policy measures moreover can accelerate this transition to a self-driving future. Concurrently, ‘showstoppers’ may emerge: developments that impede the transition.

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Preparing for the future of Transportation: Automated Vehicle 3.0 Department of Transportation (US DoT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Public authority Strategy United States 2018-01-01 Link
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Research and innovation capacity in cooperative, connected and automated transport Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission EU Report 2018-01-01 Link

The Transport Research and Innovation Monitoring and Information System (TRIMIS) is the analytical support tool for the establishment and implementation of the Strategic Transport Research and Innovation Agenda (STRIA), and is the European Commission’s (EC) instrument for mapping transport technology trends and research and innovation capacities. A total of seven STRIA roadmaps have been developed covering various thematic areas, namely:

— Cooperative, connected and automated transport;

— Transport electrification;

— Vehicle design and manufacturing;

— Low-emission alternative energy for transport;

— Network and traffic management systems;

— Smart mobility and services; and

— Infrastructure.

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Research and innovation in connected and automated transport in Europe Joint Research Centre (JRC) EU Report 2019-12-01 Link
The report presents a comprehensive analysis of research and innovation (R&I) in connected and automated transport in Europe in recent years, focusing on European Union (EU) funded projects. It identifies progress in several thematic fields and technologies, while highlighting the policy context and market activities in Europe and beyond.   The analysis is divided into five sub-themes, each one addressing challenges and findings across modes, including multi-modal transport. Main findings on the R&I related to the five sub-themes are presented below:

on-board equipment
Most projects covered by the analysis are at the early stages of development, at basic research. Therefore, many of the projects have set the foundation for further development.

connectivity and safety
Projects that show deeper integration between fully or partially automated vehicles and connectivity with infrastructure, other vehicles and other connected devices and users (V2X) should be encouraged; especially those can have a positive impact on safety.

supporting infrastructure
Some projects have researched the role of physical infrastructure in facilitating connected and automated transport. Since there are relatively few projects under this sub-theme that utilise data to improve physical infrastructure design with connected vehicles in mind, this could be an area for further research.

socio-economic impacts and human factors
For several road transport projects, the research is based on the development of Apps. Future research should ensure that the latest state-of-the-art data sources and data processing techniques are used, as well as facilitating largescale trials and pilots.

large scale testing.
Safety and security are an underlying theme of the majority of demonstration projects. Therefore, it would be beneficial to build upon the research undertaken by previous European-funded projects, as well as working alongside the private sector, to ensure that research is being optimised and to dissuade the development of repetitive projects, which do not establish a step change in the field.  

Altogether, this report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of CAT R&I across Europe. The findings and the insights into the current R&I status and future needs, help the European Commission and the STRIA working group to better identify and prioritise R&I activities and provides valuable information to connected and automated transport stakeholders.

Relation with other roadmaps and plans:
This report on research and innovation in connected and automated transport in Europe is one of the seven reports that support the implementation of the STRIA roadmaps. The TRIMIS team is consolidating and expanding the data repository to better assess R&I efforts of projects not funded by the EU or Member States. As part of this effort, information on patents and publications will be added. TRIMIS will continue to provide support to STRIA and, based on its research, provide recommendations to policymakers.

STRIA Roadmap on Connected and Automated Transport: Road, Rail and Waterborne

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Road map and action plan to facilitate automated driving on TEN road network – version 2020 (final draft) EU EIP Road authorities and operators Roadmap 2020-09-01 Link
This roadmap gathered information in several open workshops with road authorities and operators, with the L3pilot project, with external experts in the field of cost and benefits considering the operational design domain, and with European Commission representatives.   Stakeholders, road authorities and operators, have already been considering their position on automation, on different levels, in several initiatives. This is a continuous effort since the field of automation is constantly evolving. This roadmap document is part of this continuous effort and focuses on findings/efforts and a direction for future work within the following topics: Impact on and role of physical and digital infrastructure, with a specific focus on the concept of Operational Design Domain (ODD)Cost and benefits of automation for road authorities and operators   The document provides a list of 45 actions and recommendations  many of which at least need to be addressed by road authorities/operators. For each action information is provided on other stakeholders involved, resources needed (money, time, power, cooperation, …) and timing (short term: next 3 years, medium term: next 10 years, long term: > 10 years).   The emphasis is clearly in learning more about the developments and evolution of higher level (SAE 3-4) automated driving including the related ODD requirements. Goal is to be prepared for automated driving, have influence on the development so that road network operation does not suffer but rather improves, avoid excessive investments in vain, and to reap the potential benefits as soon as possible. It is premature to commence deployments unless road authorities and operators are certain that the solutions invested in will not become obsolete in the short term. Some of the short-term actions, can be carried out with no regrets as they will benefit the road network operations already today and involving human-operated vehicles. Such relate to, for instance, provision of data in digital form, digitalisation of key processes, implementing cybersecurity, and provision of connectivity of the physical and digital infrastructure.   The actions and recommendations should be taken further by the road authorities and other stakeholders. Especially a structured dialogue between the road authorities/operators and the automated driving industry is considered important. It would be advisable to converge the large number of roadmap activities in Europe towards a smaller number of dedicated work streams.  
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Road Transport Automation Road Map and Action Plan 2016–2020 Finnish Transport Agency Member State Roadmap Finland 2016-01-01 Link

Road Automation is progressing fast. This phenomenon takes advantage of both existing and emerging cooperative Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and In-Vehicle System (IVS) sensor functionalities. Advancements in automatisation, i.e. deployment of automation, are proceeding by integration of the technologies above. The Ministry of Transport and Communication has emphasised that Finland is in the forefront in preparing for and utilising automated traffic.

This document describes the study and design processes used. The study methodology was composed of a concise literature review, expert discussions, working sessions, and stakeholder and authority workshops as well as of the editors’ own experience and knowledge of the domain. The design methodology was based on a phased work on various themes. During the first phase the knowledge gaps, which were identified during the literature review and expert discussions, were discussed in depth. Based on the results, specific action cards were developed and drafted. The action cards contained the title and generic use case and contents descriptions. The various draft versions of the action cards, with the detailed activities included, were thoroughly discussed in the project and the steering group meetings as well as in the stakeholder and administrative entity workshops. The final action cards contain information on detailed activities to be taken, the proposed agency in charge of the coordination of the action with the nominated supporting entities, and scheduled timing of the action and its activities, as well as drafted estimations of resources and budgetary reservations needed for the implementation. The action cards were finalised in the project group and approved by the steering group.

In order to proceed with planning and implementation of the action cards they were divided into five domains. The domains are: infrastructure, road superstructure and equipment, vehicle systems, services and functions, and driver.

The purpose of the action cards is to combine the related transport authority activities and resource needs for guidance to be used in the next few years. The detailed information has been presented to the authorities for their planning and implementation processes. This document provides an overall summary of the results.

During the first two years of the study period, 2016–2017, it is suggested to launch a total of 114 individual actions, either as part of an existing project, as combined to form a larger new project or as stand-alone projects.

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Road vehicle automation in sustainable urban mobility planning Practitioner Briefing European Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans EU Strategy 2019-01-01 Link
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Roadmap – digitalisation of the Road Transport System Swedish Transport Administration Member State Roadmap Sweden 2022-02-28 Link

Short version of “Roadmap – Digitalisation of the Road Transport System for the Years 2022–2030”1 (complete roadmap available in Swedish only).

The purpose of the roadmap is to identify important steps and apply measures to more readily benefit from the opportunities that digitalisation offers. The roadmap indicates proposed measures and areas where the Swedish Transport Administration either leads or participates in the development, or considers there to be development potential in order to meet the transport policy objectives and Goals 2030 – Accessibility in a Sustainable Society.

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Roadmap for the deployment of automated driving in the European Union European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) Industry Roadmap 2019-12-01 Link
This roadmap explains the key benefits and the different levels of automated driving (including autonomous driving and assisted driving), as well as all the associated terminology, in a clear and visual way. In addition, this roadmap also provides a checklist for policy makers which details the legislative framework that must be put in place at the international, EU and national level. Moreover, it contains a timeline setting out the next steps that must be undertaken over the coming years in order to enable the deployment of automated vehicles on Europe’s roads in the near future. In June 2020 ACEA published a discussion paper, which intends to convey joint messages and think paths from the vehicle manufacturers in view of a dialogue with the road authorities, road operators and cities. As vehicles and roads are partners in the transport ecosystem, a hybrid approach is preferred: Vehicles adapt to the existing road environment and can rely on onboard technology while roads adapt to high levels of automation including reengineering (physical and digital) where needed. Consistency between on-board vehicle capabilities, physical infrastructure characteristics and support from the digital infrastructure is needed. Minimum physical and digital requirements for road infrastructure are welcomed assets for automated vehicles. European standardisation and governance can be crucial here. The cost factor and longer implementation cycle of such adaptations of the infrastructure play a significant role, hence a step by step but phased approach must be implemented. V2I/I2V connectivity can contribute to safety such as the feed of predictive traffic situations with blind spots and out of sight situations. The development of HD maps has to be considered in a holistic public and private approach. The role of the different stakeholders has to be defined in order to assure a clear contribution to the common good while at the same time guaranteeing a competitive market. This roadmap relates to the ACEA Discussion Paper: Roads of the future for automated driving (2020/06)

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Safety Assessment for Automated Driving Systems in Canada Transport Canada Public authority Strategy Canada 2019-01-01 Link

The Safety Assessment for Automated Driving Systems (ADS) in Canada is a voluntary tool to help ADS developers review the safety of vehicles equipped with SAE level 3 to 5 ADS features, which they intend to manufacture, import, operate and/or sell in Canada.

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SIP 2nd Phase: Automated Driving for Universal Services Final Results Report (2018 – 2022) SIP-adus (Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program; Automated Driving for Universal Services) Member State Report Japan 2023-03-07 Link
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State of play of Connected and Automated Driving and future challenges and opportunities for Europe’s Cities and Regions European Committee of the Regions EU Report 2018-11-12 Link
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STRIA Roadmap on Connected and Automated Transport: Road, Rail and Waterborne Strategic Transport Research & Innovation Agenda (STRIA), European Commission EU, Member State, Industry Roadmap 2019-01-01 Link
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Task Force on Ethical Aspects of Connected and Automated Driving Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure Task Force on Ethical Aspects of Connectedand Automated Driving,2nd High Level Structural Dialogue (Frankfurt) EU Report 2018-01-01 Link
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The future of road Transport – Implications of Automated, Connected, Low-carbon and Shared Mobility Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission EU Report 2019-06-21 Link
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UK Connected and Automated Mobility Roadmap to 2030 Zenzic Member State Roadmap United Kingdom 2019-09-01 Link
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White Paper ICV Roadmaps: A Worldwide Perspective The International Communication and Cooperation Committee of ICV Roadmaps, China Society of Automotive Engineers (CSAE), China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent & Connected Vehicles (CAICV) Industry Report China 2023-05-05 Link

Diverse roadmaps have been released from different countries and regions, led by respective industry organizations as well as governments, playing a crucial role in the alignment among all sectors. To explore the realization path and its corresponding innovation mechanism, starting from exchange and cooperation on these roadmaps, and to lay a solid foundation for further global alignment, the China Society of Automotive Engineers (CSAE) and China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent & Connected Vehicles (CAICV) have established the International Communication and Cooperation Committee of ICV Roadmaps, together with organizations, institutions, and enterprises all around the world, including 5GAA, ACEA, BMW, CAAM, CAERI, CAICT, CATARC, Changan Auto, CICT, DFM, Drive Sweden, ERTICO, ERTRAC & CCAM Partnership, FISITA, GAC Motor, GM, Huawei, KSAE, RIOH, RIRS, SAE International, VDA, Volkswagen, and Zenzic.

This white paper outlines the main contents of these diverse ICV roadmaps, drawing on input from the corresponding committee members, synthesizing the respective characteristics and the best practices of these roadmaps.

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Who’s in control? Road safety and automation in road traffic Dutch safety board Report Netherlands 2019-11-01 Link

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are systems that assist the driver in carrying out the primary driving task. ADAS observe the environment using sensors and are able to take over control of speed or driving direction, subject to the responsibility of the person at the wheel. Systems of this kind are also able to warn the driver in situations that the system considers dangerous.

Automation in road traffic can help improve road safety, but also engender new road safety risks. On the basis of accident investigations, a literature review and discussions with experts, the Dutch Safety Board has identified a number of types of new risks that are not yet sufficiently recognized or managed.

When they are placed on the market, ADAS are not yet fully mature. This means that following permission for use on public roads, they undergo further development. Together with the lack of knowledge among drivers, situations in which drivers fail to understand why the vehicle responds or indeed fails to respond in a particular way can quickly arise. In addition, drivers in vehicles fitted with ADAS play a different role than drivers in conventional cars, namely the role of operator.

In all its investigations, the Dutch Safety Board operates a reference framework. This framework lays out the standards with which the various stakeholders are expected to comply, in order to manage safety risks in a given field. Essentially, this reference framework is a question of responsible innovation. Based on this framework, the Dutch Safety Board has identified bottlenecks in terms of design, policy, regulation and supervision, data availability and learning capacity. In addition, the Dutch Safety Board provides in total six recommendations to the automotive manufacturers and the OICA and ACEA umbrella organizations (1), to the BOVAG and RAI Association (1), and to the Dutch Minister of Infrastructure and Water Management (4).

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