Last modified on February 22, 2024


Interested in how terms are related or do you wish to export a list based on certain contexts? Please take a look at the taxonomy for CCAM here.

Term Definition
Abstract scenario Abstract scenario is the formalized, declarative description derived from a functional scenario.
Acceleration value Acceleration value measures the rate at which a vehicle’s velocity increases at a specific point in time, expressed as the rate of change of velocity per unit of time.
Acquired data Acquired data are all data collected during the study for the sole purpose of the analysis.
Action Action is the behaviour or act that is executed by any actor in a scenario.
Active safety system Active safety systems are vehicle systems that sense and monitor conditions inside and outside the vehicle for the purpose of identifying perceived present and potential dangers to the vehicle, occupants, and/or other road users.
Actor Actor is the entity with the capability to act and react in a scenario.
Adaptive cruise control Adaptive cruise control is a system that attempts to maintain the vehicle at a driver-selected target speed and following distance, using sensors and actuators to regulate vehicle speed.
Administrative metadata Administrative metadata set the conditions for accessing the data and how access is to be implemented.
ADS feature Automated Driving System (ADS) feature means an application of automated driving system hardware and software designed for a specific use within an operational design domain.
ADS function Automated Driving System (ADS) function means an application of automated driving system hardware and software designed to perform a specific portion of the DDT.
ADS-dedicated vehicle ADS-dedicated vehicle is the ADS-equipped vehicle designed for only driverless operation for complete trips.
ADS-equipped vehicle ADS-equipped vehicle refers to vehicle integrated with an ADS.
Advanced driver assistance system Advanced driver assistance system is the entity consisting of interdependent components that supports human drivers by performing a part of the dynamic driving task, by assisting human
drivers to drive safely, by intervening to prevent an unsafe situation from developing or by providing safety relevant information and warnings.
Advanced emergency braking system Advanced emergency braking system is the vehicle system that uses sensors and computer processing to detect when the ego vehicle could collide with an object in its path and applies the
brakes automatically attempting to mitigate or avoid
the collision, even if the driver takes no action.
Aggregated data Aggregated data refers to using relations between segments, reduced data (e.g., segment attributes) are typically aggregated into smaller, more usable tables, suitable for data analysis or data interpretation.
Agreement-seeking cooperation Agreement-seeking cooperation [among CDA device agents] (CLASS C) refers to a sequence of collaborative messages among specific CDA devices intended to influence local planning of specific
DDT-related actions. (“Let’s do this together.”)
Approaching vehicle Approaching vehicle is an equipped vehicle whose trajectory will or may intersect the host vehicle as the host vehicle maintains its own trajectory.
Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence refers to the research and development of mechanisms and applications of AI systems.
Artificial intelligence agent Artificial intelligence agent is the automated entity that senses and responds to its environment and takes actions to achieve its goals.
Artificial intelligence component Artificial intelligence component is the functional element that constructs an AI system.
Artificial intelligence system Artificial intelligence system is the engineered system that generates outputs such as content, forecasts, recommendations or decisions for a given set of human-defined objectives.
Assessment Assessment is the undertaking of an investigation in order to arrive at a judgement, based on evidence, of the suitability of a product.
Audit Audit refers to a systematic and independent examination to determine whether the procedures specific to the requirements of a product comply with the planned arrangements, are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the specified objectives.
Automated / automation / automatic Automated / automation / automatic refers to pertaining to a process or system that, under specified conditions, functions without human intervention.
Automated driving system Automated driving system refers to hardware and software that are collectively capable of performing the entire dynamic driving task on a sustained basis, regardless of whether it is limited to a specific operational design domain. ADS is used specifically to describe a Level 3, 4, or 5 driving automation system.
Automated lane keeping system Automated lane keeping system is hardware and software for motorway application activated by a human driver within its operational
design domain.
Automated mobility Automated mobility refers to replacing the driver in a vehicle for dynamic driving tasks (braking, steering, environment monitoring, etc).
Automated vehicle Automated vehicle refers to a vehicle fitted with an automated driving system (ADS) that uses both hardware and software to perform dynamic driving tasks associated with moving the vehicle within a defined operational design domain (ODD).
Autonomy / autonomous Autonomy / autonomous refers to characteristic of a system that is capable of modifying its intended domain of use or goal without external intervention, control or oversight.
Business-to-consumer mobility sharing app Business-to-consumer mobility sharing app is the mobility app that assists a transport user in acquiring a transport service from a specific business.
Back office A back office is an infrastructure element that consumes data from, or provides data to, the roadside Infrastructure or other devices capable of V2X communications (e.g., vehicles).
Baseline Baseline is the initial state or condition, against which subsequent altered conditions are compared to assess impact.
Bicyclist Bicyclist is the person who rides a bicycle: a two-wheeled vehicle that is propelled solely or mainly by the muscular energy of the person on that vehicle, in particular by means of pedals.
Bikesharing service Bikesharing service is the shared vehicle service that shares bicycles.
Black box Black box refers to a system, algorithm, or process whose internal workings are hidden or not transparent to the user or observer, in the context of data and technology. This lack of transparency means that you may not have insight into how the system processes data or makes decisions, making it difficult to understand or interpret its actions.
Bus Bus is the motor vehicle which, because of its design and appointments, is intended for carrying persons and luggage, and which has more than nine seating places, including the driving seat.
Calibration data Calibration data refers to the data that will be applied as software parameter values after the software build in the development process. Calibration data does not contain executable or interpretable code.
Carriageway Carriageway is the contiguous area of roadway along a road segment.
Carsharing service Carsharing service is the shared vehicle service that shares passenger cars.
CCAM system description CCAM system description is the specification of the characteristics, capabilities, functionalities, and limitations of the system or service under evaluation.
CDA cooperation classes CDA cooperation classes refer to classes of cooperation facilitated by machine to machine communications among CDA devices that may influence DDT performance and traffic operations, defined as Classes A through D based on the increasing amount of cooperation entailed in each successive class.
CDA device CDA device refers to a device equipped with requisite machine to machine communication technology that is used by traffic participants to perform CDA features.
CDA device agent CDA device agent is a traffic particpant that authorizes its CDA device to send and receive communications enabling traffic participants to engage in CDA, and authorizes CDA-related actions.
CDA driver support feature CDA driver support feature refers to a Level 1 or 2 driving automation system capable of utilizing CDA. (Refer to SAE J3016 for additional information about driving automation systems.)
CDA feature CDA feature is the design-specific functionality supported or enabled by machine to machine cooperation among CDA devices communicating with a C-ADS engaging in CDA.
Certificate authority Certificate authority is a back office infrastructure element which interacts with the host vehicle and the RSU to enter into a dialog with the host vehicle and provide certification services. A primary goal of the CA is to manage the collection of certificates for V2X devices.
Cloudiness value Cloudiness value refers to the sky being covered with clouds or having a lot of clouds.
Concrete scenario Concrete scenario is the scenario depicted with explicit parameters values, describing physical attributes.
Confined areas Confined areas typically have the surrounding under control with perimeter protection and gates to prevent un-authorized entry of vehicles and people.
Connected and automated vehicle Connected and automated vehicle refers to automated vehicle equipped with communications technology that enables data transfer with other vehicles, infrastructure or other networks.
Connected mobility Connected mobility refers to a service provider using telecommunication services (mostly driven by cllular technologies, cloud service provision and web applications today) to bring information inside the vehicle, or collecting vehicle data information to support mobility services (including services such shared driving, mobility as a service, insurance, remote diagnostics, charging stations).
Connected vehicle Connected vehicle refers to vehicle equipped with wireless communications technology that enables data transfer with other vehicles, infrastructure or other network.
Connectivity Connectivity indicates the ability of a vehicle to receive data from and/or transmit data to an external system to determine positioning or to communicate with other vehicles and the wider infrastructure.
Contextual data Contextual data is all information which doesn’t change during the study but helps explain the observations or document their values.
Controllability Controllability refers to ability to avoid a specified harm or damage through the timely reactions of the persons involved, possibly with support from external measures.
Conventional vehicle Conventional vehicle is a vehicle designed to be operated by an in-vehicle driver during part or all of every trip.
Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) system is an enhancement to the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system by the addition of wireless communication with preceding vehicles and/or the infrastructure to augment the ACC active sensing capability.
Cooperative intelligent transport system Cooperative intelligent transport system is the subset of overall ITS that communicates and shares information between ITS stations to give advice or facilitate actions with the objective of improving safety, sustainability, efficiency and comfort beyond the scope of stand-alone systems.
Cooperative mobility Cooperative mobility is sharing information on the road and traffic conditions around the road users (today mostly driven by Day 1 C-ITS services based on short-range communication). It does not necessarily include a service provider.
Connected cooperative and automated mobility Connected cooperative and automated mobility is an umbrella term of intelligent mobility, Intelligent Transport Systems and Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems.
Cooperative driving automation Cooperative driving automation refers to automation that uses machine to machine communication to enable cooperation among two or more entities with capable communications technology and is intended to facilitate the safer, more efficient movement of road users, including enhacing performance of the DDT for a vehicle with driving automation feature(s) engaged.
Cooperative automated driving system Cooperative automated driving system (C-ADS) refers to an ADS capable of utilizing CDA.
Cooperative automated driving system – equipped vehicle Cooperative automated driving system (C-ADS)-equipped vehicle refers to a vehicle equipped with Level 3, 4, or 5 driving automation and capable of utilizing CDA.
Cooperative-ITS environment Cooperative-ITS environment is the communications environment that enables ITS stations to communicate with other ITS stations using whatever communications networks are available at their current locations and if ncessary to seemlessly switch between networks as their locations change.
Courier network service Courier network service is the commercial, peer-to-peer shared transport service that transports goods.
Crash avoidance features Crash avoidance features is, including intervention-type active safety systems, may be included in vehicles equipped with
driving automation systems at any level. For ADS-equipped vehicles (i.e., Levels 3 to 5) that perform the complete DDT, crash avoidance capability is part of ADS functionality.
Current operational domain Current operational domain is the specific set of operating conditions which exists presently in the immediate vicinity of an ADS, including, but not limited to, environmental, geographical, and time-of-day restrictions, and/or the requisite presence or absence of certain traffic or roadway characteristics.
Curvature Curvature refers to the degree to which a curve deviates from a straight line, or a curved surface deviates from a plane.
Curve The curve which consists of a single arc of a circle of which two straight tangents further connects and brings about a deflection of the road.
C-V2X C-V2X is a communication technology with and between vehicles, infrastructure and/or pedestrian devices using 4G and 5G cellular chipsets.
Data Data is defined as ‘any facts, statistics or digital material whose value might be used during analysis and impact its result’.
Data anonymization Data anonymization refers to the process of removing or modifying the identifying variables contained in the dataset.
Data collection Data collection is the gathering of real-world or simulated, objective or subjective data and/or information for the evaluation.
Data consumer Data consumer refers to a participant that receives data in the form of a Data Product. The data is used for query, analysis, reporting or any other data processing.
Data creator The Data creator creates data, e.g. by generating data such as from a sensor or accessing data in backend IT systems.
Data flow Data flow is the representation of data flowing between two processes or between a process and a terminator.
Data intermediary Data Intermediary is a platform operator that assumes mainly the data-related basic roles Data Provider/Data Consumer and Metadata Broker.
Data owners Data owners are the people ultimately responsible for the data and information collected and maintained by his or her department or division. They are usually a member of senior management, and can also be line-of-business managers, division heads, or the equivalent. If the data resides and is primarily in use within their group, they own it. The aim is for data owners to provide an additional layer of context for classification, such as third-party agreements, which some of today’s automated tools can’t do yet.
Data provider Data provider refers to an individual, a household, enterprise, administration or any other respondent which directly or indirectly provides statistical data and/or reference metadata to the statistical authorities.
Data service provider Data service providers act as intermediaries between businesses and consumers, providing a range of services to facilitate the transfer of data between these two parties.
Data specification & tools Data specification and tools is the defining and identifying of the types of data required and the tools used for processing and storing the data for the evaluation.
Data user Data user refers to a natural or legal person/organisation who has lawful access to certain personal or non-personal data and is authorised to use that data for commercial or noncommercial purposes.
DDT fallback-ready user DDT fallback-ready user refers to the user of a vehicle equipped with an engaged Level 3 ADS feature who is properly qualified and able to operate the vehicle and is receptive to ADS-issued requests to intervene and to evident DDT performance-relevant system failures in the vehicle compelling him or her to perform the DDT fallback.
DDT performance-relevant system failure DDT performance-relevant system failure is the malfunction in a vehicle system that prevents the driving automation system from reliably performing its portion of the DDT on a sustained basis.
Deceleration value Deceleration value measures the rate at which a vehicle’s velocity decreases at a specific point in time, expressed as the rate of change of velocity per unit of time.
Dedicated short range communication Dedicated short range communication is one or two-way short to medium range wireless communications using a corresponding set of protocols and standards designed for automotive use.
Derived data Derived data are data created as a result of processing that involves steps other than or in addition to direct retrieval and validation of information from raw data.
Descriptive metadata Descriptive metadata describe each individual category of data, including information about its origin and quality.
Distance to stop line Distance to stop line is the distance from the vehicle’s front to the next stop line in the vehicle’s planned path applying comfort deceleration and jerk values).
Distance to subject vehicle Distance to subject vehicle refers to the distance from an object to the vehicle being analysed or tested (ego-vehicle).
Down Time Down Time is the time interval during which a product is in a down state.
Drivable area edge The drivable area edge is delimited by the lane markings, shoulder or other barriers placed on the road.
Drivable area surface Drivable area surface  defines the operating area surface type and its features.
Driver Driver is a user who performs in real time part or all of the DDT and/or DDT fallback for a particular vehicle.
Driver support feature Driver support features is a general term for Level 1 and Level 2 driving automation system features.
Driverless operation dispatcher Driverless operation dispatcher is a user(s) who dispatches an ADS-equipped vehicle(s) in driverless operation.
Driving automation Driving automation is the performance by hardware/software systems of part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis.
Driving automation fallback Driving automation fallback is the driving automation response by a person to perform the DDT or by an ADS to achieve a minimal risk condition when the response is triggered upon violation of the defined operational design domain constraints or in response to a DDT performance-relevant driving automation system failure.
Driving automation system Driving automation system refers to the hardware and software that are collectively capable of performing part or all of the dynamic driving task on a sustained basis.
Driving automation system feature Driving automation system feature is a Level 1-5 driving automation system’s design-specific functionality at a given level of driving automation within a particular ODD, if applicable.
Driving behaviour Driving behaviour describes the longitudinal and lateral movements of a single vehicle, including decision making (e.g. whether or not to make a lane change, choice of speed, distance to vehicle in front). It is influenced by cognitive, emotional and physical factors.
Driving dynamics Driving dynamics describes the longitudinal and lateral movements of a single vehicle. It results from decisions made by the driver of the ADS in interaction with vehicle, environment and surrounding road users.
Driving scenario Driving scenario is a short period of driving defined by its main driving task (e.g. car following, lane change) or triggered by an event (e.g. an obstacle in the lane).
Driving space Driving space is the area above the roadway that is primarily designed for the movement of vehicles.
Dual-mode vehicle Dual-mode vehicle is an ADS-equipped vehicle designed for both driverless operation and operation by a conventional driver for complete trips.
Dynamic driving task The dynamic driving task are all of the real-time operational and tactical functions required to operate a vehicle in on-road traffic, excluding the strategic functions such as trip scheduling and selection of destinations and waypoints.
Dynamic driving task fallback Dynamic driving task fallback is the response by the user to either perform the DDT or achieve a minimal risk condition after occurrence of a DDT performance-relevant system failure(s), or Some Level 3 features upon operational design domain (ODD) exit, or the response by an ADS to achieve minimal risk condition, given the same circumstances.
Dynamic driving task performance Dynamic driving task performance refers to the feature performs the complete DDT while functioning normally and within its ODD, if any, under routine/normal operating conditions for the ADS feature.
Dynamic element Dynamic element refers to all movable objects and actors with which the automated vehicle interacts in the ODD within the DDT timeframe.
Electronic stability control Electronic stability control is the vehicle system that continuously monitors steering and vehicle direction and compares intended direction to the vehicle’s actual direction and intervenes by applying the brakes independently to each of the wheels to correct loss of control much faster than a typical human driver.
Emergency lane keeping Emergency lane keeping vehicle system that attempts to prevent the vehicle from crossing a lane marking into a lane where there is an obstruction or risk of collision, irrespective of whether the human driver has operated the direction indicator.
Emergency manoeuver Emergency manoeuver is a manoeuver performed by the system in case of an event in which the vehicle is at imminent collision risk and has the purpose of avoiding or mitigating a collision.(UN Reg 157 at 2.8)
Employment Employment is the work that is available in a country or area.
Enabling CDA feature Enabling CDA feature is a CDA feature capable of promoting cooperation among traffic participants intended to facilitate the performance of actions by road users and road operators that they would otherwise not be able to perform.
Energy and environment Energy use is measured with total energy demand per vehicle kilometers travelled.
Environment is defined by the indicators: emissions, energy use, air soil, water quality, noise, vibrations, use of space and life cycle analysis of materials use.
Energy use Energy use is measured with total energy demand per vehicle kilometers travelled.
Entity Entity is the element of interest in a scenario.
Environment Environment is defined by the indicators: emissions, energy use, air soil, water quality, noise, vibrations, use of space and life cycle analysis of materials use.
Environmental condition Environmental condition is the weather or another atmospheric condition and other conditions of the environment which are not defined as scenery elements (as well as information technology connectivity).
Equality Equality means each individual or group of people is given the same resources and opportunities, regardless of their circumstances.
Equipped vehicle Equipped vehicles refer to vehicles equipped with the device(s) that provide the role of an ITS-station in the C-ITS context, e.g., an OBU.
Equity Equity is the consistent and systematic fair, just, and impartial treatment of all individuals, including individuals who belong to underserved communities that have been denied such treatment.
Evaluation Evaluation is the systematic process to research the amount, value, quality or consequences of an aspect related to a CCAM system or service and its use.
Evaluation area An evaluation area is a high-level category for fields of study addressed under evaluation activities.
Evaluation execution Evaluation execution is the process of carrying out the evaluation plan to obtain results.
Evaluation methods Evaluation methods is the specification of the analytical and procedural approaches of the evaluation.
Evaluation plan Evaluation plan is the detailed description of the scope, methodology, and objectives of the investigation.
Event Event is the relevant state change of an entity within a scenario.
Experiment An experiment is a series of test runs, trips or simulations, to collect data in relation to the research question.
Experimental design Experimental design is the structured plan or strategy deviced to conduct systematic experiments for the evaluation.
Experimental procedure Experimental procedure is the step by step implementation plan for conducting an experiment according to the experimental design.
External data External data reveals to data which originate from sources external to the CCAM project.
Failure Failure is the termination of an intended behaviour of an element or an item due to a fault manifestation. Termination can be permanent or transient.
Failure cause Failure cause is the circumstances during design, manufacture or use which have led to a failure.
Fault Fault refers to abnormal condition that can cause an element or an item to fail.
Fault mode Fault mode is one of the possible states of a faulty product for a given required function.
Field experiment A field experiment is a series of test runs or drives in real-world environment, either on real roads or on test tracks to collect data in relation to a research question.
Filtering Filtering is the selection of datapoints based on defined criteria.
Fleet vehicle Fleet vehicle is an equipped vehicle which is part of a collection of vehicles owned or operated by a common entity, public or private.
Forward collision warning Forward collision warning is the vehicle system that uses sensors and computer processing to detect when the vehicle might collide with an object in its path and provides warnings for the human driver to prompt avoiding action.
Free-floating Free-floating is the transport service network model where the transport service may be initiated and terminated at any location meeting basic criteria.
Frequency Frequency is the pace of data logging per time unit.
Full-trip feature Full-trip feature refers to ADS features that operate a vehicle throughout complete trips.
Function Function is the functional view series of actions or activities performed by a given object to achieve a goal.
Functional safety Absence of unreasonable risk due to hazards caused by malfunctioning behaviour of E/E systems.
Functional scenario Functional scenario is the scenario described in natural language on a conceptional level, in general without specific physical values.
Goods logistics Goods logistics is the commercial activity of transporting goods.
Goods transport pattern Goods transport pattern refers to mode choice, route choice and choice of timing of transport.
Growth and employment Growth and employment refers to, i.e. which impacts do CCAM and CCAM services have on economic growth (in terms of GDP) and employment (number of jobs and related skills).
Harm Harm is physical injury or damage to the health of persons.
Hazard Hazard is potential source of harm caused by malfunctioning behaviour of the item.
Hazard analysis and risk assessment Hazard analysis and risk assessment is method to identify and categorize hazardous events of items and to specify safety goals and ASILs related to the prevention or mitigation of the associated hazards in order to avoid unreasonable risk.
Hazardous event Hazardous event is the combination of a hazard (caused by malfunctioning behaviour of an item with respect to its design intent) and a specific operational situation.
Human-machine interaction Human-machine interaction refers to the two-way communication between a person and a system including the possible effects on the human performance.
Human-machine interface Human-machine interface is human-machine interaction mechanism, including the set of inputs, outputs, and dialogue procedures.
Illumination Illumination or lighting is the deliberate use of light to achieve practical or aesthetic effects. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight.
Impact area An impact area is defined as a field of study addressed under impact assessment activities.
Impact assessment Impact assessment is the evaluation addressing the broader implications of the CCAM systems or services and their use on people and society.
Indicator Indicator is a measure or metric used to assess an aspect in the current condition.
Information Information refers to processed, organized or structured data, or data that has been given a semantic load, or a value under a certain business domain.
Infrastructure support levels for automated driving Infrastructure support levels for automated driving are five infrastructure (ISAD) classes designed based on multiple potential dimensions.
Intelligent speed assistance Intelligent speed assistance is a driver assistance system uses a speed sign-recognition video camera and/or GPS-linked speed limit data to advise drivers of the current speed limit and automatically limit the speed of the vehicle as needed.
Intelligent transport system Intelligent transport system is the transport systems in which advanced information, communication, sensor and control technologies, including the internet, are applied to increase safety, sustainability, efficiency and comfort.
Intent-sharing cooperation Intent-sharing cooperation (CLASS B) refers to information about planned future actions of the sending entity provided by that entity for potential utilization by receiving entities. (“This is what I plan to do.”)
Interoperability Interoperability is the ability to share information among heterogeneous applications and systems.
Intersection Intersection is a junction where two or more roads converge, diverge, meet or cross at the same height.
In-vehicle driver In-vehicle driver is the driver that performs the dynamic driving task using the vehicle’s built-in input devices to control the longitudinal and lateral movement of the vehicle.
In-vehicle fallback-ready  user In-vehicle fallback-ready  user is a fallback-ready user of a conventional vehicle with an engaged Level 3 ADS feature who is seated in the driver’s seat.
ITS application ITS application is the instantiation of an ITS service that involves an association of two or more complementary ITS-S application processes.
ITS component ITS component is the physical object that has been assigned one or more functional objects in the provision of one or more ITS services.
ITS service ITS service is the functionality provided to users of intelligent transport systems designed to increase safety, sustainability, efficiency, and/or comfort.
ITS station ITS station is the entity in a communication network capable of communicating with other similar entities.
ITS-G5 802.11p ITS-G5 is the communications standard for supporting vehicle-to-
vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications in an ad hoc network based on IEEE 802.11-2012 and ANSI/IEEE Std 802.2.
Junction Junctions are areas on the map where two or more roads meet, and  it is the intersection that allows travellers to change roads.
Justice Justice is long-term equity.
Key performance indicator Key Performance Indicators are critical Performance Indicators that reflect the most significant outcomes related to the primary objectives of the study.
Key performance indicator definition Key performance indicator (KPI) definition is a part of the evaluation plan on the metrics with which we will answer the research questions.
Land use Land use is defined by the socio-economic description (functional dimension) of areas.
Lane Lane is the portion of road reservation intended to accommodate a single line of moving material entities along its length. Example: traffic lane, cycle lane, and sidewalk.
Lane centring Lane centring is the vehicle system that uses cameras or other inputs and systematic controls to help the vehicle stay in the centre of the driven lane.
Lane count Lane count refers to the number of lanes of the road.
Lane departure warning Lane departure warning is vehicle system that uses cameras or other inputs to detect impending lane exceedances by the vehicle and provide visual, auditory or haptic feedback to the human driver.
Lane keeping assist Lane keeping assistance is vehicle system that uses cameras or other inputs and systematic controls to direct the vehicle away from the edges of the driven lane.
Lane marking A mark or patten of marks delimiting the lanes of the road. They also determine the direction and crossing restrictions.
Lane width The width of the road from the marked centerline to the edge marking if present or the edge of the road surfacing material.
Large scale demonstrations Large scale demonstrations refer to real life tests of novel solutions to actual ‘problem’ driven by strong partnership and strategic use of resources.
Level 0 Level 0 refers to the level of automation when there is no driving automation.
Level 1 Level 1 refers to the level of automation with driver assistance.
Level 2 Level 2 refers to the level of automation with partial driving automation.
Level 3 Level 3 refers to the level of automation with conditional driving automation.
Level 4 Level 4 refers to the level of automation with high driving automation.
Level 5 Level 5 refers to the level of automation with full driving automation.
Liveability Liveability is the degree to which a place is suitable or good for living in.
Location Location is the particular place or position.
Location referencing Location referencing is the process used to develop a spatial reference.
Location segment Location segment corresponds to a location where any specific condition are met, usually during a specific time (but not necessarliy).
Logical scenario Logical scenario is the scenario described with the inclusion of parameters, where the values of some of the parameters are defined as ranges.
Logistics Logistics is the careful organization of a complicated activity so that it happens in a successful and effective way, with regard to CCAM it is often referring to logistics of goods.
Manoeuver-based feature Manoeuver-based feature is a driving automation system feature equipped on a conventional vehicle.
Manoeuvre Manoeuvre is the series of actions executed by an actor in order to achieve a specific goal or outcome.
Map provision system Map provision system is the ITS map provision system support system that provides map databases used to support ITS services.
Message Message is a well-structured set of data elements and data frames that can be sent as a unit between devices to convey some semantic meaning in the context of pre-defined applications.
Metadata Metadata is defined as ‘data that describe properties of other data, in the form of information about its origin, purpose, version, type of content, or any other information that may data storage, interpretation and reuse, consumption, or processing’.
Measure Measure refers to a number marked in standard unit, quantified in a numeric value and the specific unit.
Minimal risk condition Minimal risk condition is the stable, stopped condition to which a human driver or automated driving system brings a vehicle after performing a minimal risk manoeuvre in order to reduce the risk of a collision or other loss when a given trip cannot be continued.
Minimal risk manoeuvre Minimal or minimum risk manoeuvre is the tactical or operational manoeuvre triggered and executed by the driving automation system or the human driver to achieve the minimal risk condition.
Mobility app Mobility app is the ITS-S application implementation designed to assist an individual transport consumer in understanding transport-related information, making decisions, and/or acting upon decisions.
Mobility as a service Mobility as a service is a concept envisioning integrated mobility where travelers can access multiple transportation modes over a single digital
Modelling Modelling is the creation of a representation of a system or process for analyzing and predicting its behavior and attributes.
Monitor Monitor is a general term describing a range of functions involving real-time human or machine sensing and processing of data used to operate a vehicle, or to support its operation.
Monitor the user Monitor the user is the activities and/or automated routines designed to assess whether and to what degree the user is performing the role specified for him/her.
Moped Moped is the two-wheeled or three-wheeled motor-driven vehicle with a maximum design speed not exceeding 50 km/h.
Motorcycle Motorcycle refers to two-wheeled motor-driven vehicle, or three-wheeled motor-driven vehicle whose unladen weight does not exceed 800 kg, excluding mopeds as defined in ISO 3833.
Multimodal travel information Multimodal travel information is information derived from any static or dynamic travel and traffic data, or both, for users and end-users, through any communication means, covering at least two modes of transport and allowing the possibility to compare transport modes.
Navigation app Navigation app is the mobility app that assists a transport user to determine the best route to a destination.
Near-miss Near-miss refers to an incident in which a security incident is narrowly
avoided, either by chance or through deliberate action.
Network model Network model is the infrastructure framework for the agreement between a service provider and a user.
Object and event detection and response Object and event detection and response refers to the subtasks of the dynamic driving task that include monitoring the driving environment (detecting, recognizing, and classifying objects and events and preparing to respond as needed) and executing an appropriate response to such objects and events.
On-board unit An on-board unit is a vehicle mounted V2X device used to transmit and receive a variety of message traffic to and from other V2X devices (other OBUs and RSUs). Among the message types and applications supported by this process are vehicle safety messages used to exchange information on each vehicle’s dynamic movements for coordination and safety, a primary subject of this standard.
ODD attributes ODD attributes refer to the attributes of an ODD of an ADS.
On-board operator On-board operator means, where applicable to the automated driving system safety concept, a person located inside the fully automated vehicle.
Operational design domain Operating conditions under which a given driving automation system or feature thereof is specifically designed to function.
Operational domain Operational domain is the set of operating conditions, including, but not limited to, environmental, geographical, and time-of-day restrictions, and/or the requisite presence or absence of certain traffic or roadway characteristics.
Operational driving task Operational driving task refers to dynamic driving task that involves split-second reactions that can be considered pre-cognitive or innate.
Other ITS Other ITS is the ITS implementations that are connected to each other via a communications networks, but do not require connections to the C-ITS environment in order to perform their normal functions, although they may connect to the C-ITS environment for the beneficial exchange of data.
Peer-to-peer mobility sharing app Peer-to-peer mobility sharing app is the mobility app that assists a transport user in acquiring transport service from an individual that participates in the mobility app’s network.
Particulates Particulates refer to obscuration by non-precipitating water droplets and other particulates.
Passenger Passenger is a user in a vehicle who has no role in the operation of that vehicle.
Passenger car Passenger car refers to vehicle designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of persons and their luggage, their goods, or both, having not more than a seating capacity of eight, in addition to the driver, and without space for standing passengers.
Pedestrian Pedestrian refers to person who is travelling on foot.
Peer-to-peer mobility sharing app Peer-to-peer mobility app that assists a transport user in acquiring transport service from an individual that participates in the mobility app’s network.
Performance indicator Performance Indicator is a type of Indicator that assesses specific aspects related to the objectives of the study.
Personal mobility Personal mobility is the capabilities of persons to move. In contrast to travel behaviour, mobility refers also to possibilities to travel.
Process Process is the functional view process series of one or more functions in support of an ITS service.
Prescriptive cooperation Prescriptive cooperation (CLASS D) refers to the direction of specific action(s) to specific traffic participants for imminent performance of the DDT or performance of a particular task by a road operator (e.g., changing traffic signal phase), provided by a prescribing CDA device agent(s) and adhered to by a receiving CDA device agent(s). (“I will do as directed.”)
Proving ground A proving ground is a predetermined area, designed to test various functions for ADS-equipped vehicles, and is a local testbed to pilot and validate.
Public road testing Public road testing refers to open environment where ADS-equipped vehicle have interaction with other road users, like automated or non-automated vehicles.
Public transport Public transport is the transport service that is publicly accessible enabling the movement of one or more persons.
Example 1: Bus, tram, cable car, metro, train and ferry are examples of public transport means for collective use.
Example 2: Publicly-accessible shared cars, shared bikes and shared el-scooters are examples of public transport means for shared and individual use.
Public transport app Public transport app is the  mobility app that assists a transport user  in using a public transport system.
Quality of life Quality of life is an individual’s perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns.
Range Range refers to the range of detection of a system.
Real-time traffic information Real-time traffic information is information derived from any data on the infrastructure, data on regulations and restrictions, data on the state of the network and data on the real-time use of the network, or the combination thereof.
Real-time traveller information app Real-time traveller information app is the mobility app that provides information about current travel conditions to a transport user.
Record A record, is a collection of all the facts, attribute values combined into one row of data in a table, and sometimes referred to as a tuple in some, particularly older, database management systems.
Reference point A reference point is a complete set of values for latitude – longitude – and height above the reference ellipsoid which is used as an initial starting point for subsequent orthogonal offset X, Y, Z values from that point. All roadway geometry, maps of intersections, lane and curve descriptions, and other geometrical data that are encoded in this standard use a system of local reference points to index and offset the data that follows. Also called an anchor point.
Remote assistant Remote assistant is a human(s) who provides remote assistance to an ADS-equipped vehicle in driverless operation.
Remote driver Remote driver is the driver that performs the dynamic driving task without using the vehicle’s built-in input devices to control the longitudinal and lateral movement of the vehicle.
Remote driving Remote driving is the real-time performance of part or all of the DDT and/or DDT fallback (including, real-time braking, steering, acceleration, and transmission shifting), by a remote driver.
Remote fallback-ready user Remote fallback-ready user is a fallback-ready user of a Level 3 ADS-equipped vehicle in driverless operation who is not in the driver’s seat.
Remote intervention operator Remote intervention operator means, where applicable to the ADS safety concept, person(s) located outside the fully automated vehicle who may remotely achieve the tasks of the on-board operator provided it is safe to do so.
Remote operator Remote operator is the person(s) located outside the vehicle who performs Remote driving.
Research questions Research questions are questions that the evaluation is designed to answer.
Residual risk Residual risk refers to risk remaining after the deployment of safety measures.
Response time Response time refers to the time taken by a road user or a system to react to a given event.
Rideshare service Rideshare service refers to cooperative shared transport service that transports passengers concurrently.
Ridesourcing app Ridesourcing app is the P2P mobility sharing app for acquiring a ridesourced service.
Ridesourced service Ridesourced service refers to the commercial, peer-to-peer shared transport service that transports passengers.
Ridesplit service Ridesplit service is the ridesourced service that serves passengers concurrently.
Risk Risk is the combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm.
Risk factor Risk factor is the factor or condition of a scenario that, if present, increases either the probability of the occurrence of harm, or the severity of harm, or both.
Road Road is the curvilinear length of roadway that shares the same identification.
Road network Road network is the interconnected collection of roads.
Road operator Road operator refers to a traffic participant who provides, operates and maintains the roadways and supporting infrastructure that enable and
support the mobility needs of road users.
Road reservation Road reservation is the easement area legally reserved for road transport purposes and support.
Road safety-related minimum universal traffic information Road safety-related minimum universal traffic information is any extracted, aggregated and processed road safety-related traffic data, offered by public and/or private road operators and/or service providers to end users through any delivery channel.
Road user Road user is the something which uses a road to travel.
Road vehicle Road vehicle is the vehicle meeting the requirements to operate within the driving space of a road.
Roadside Roadside is the portion of the road reservation excluding all roadway and driving space(s).
Roadside unit A roadside unit is a V2X device used to transmit to, and receive from, V2X-equipped moving vehicles (OBUs). The RSU transmits from a fixed position on the roadside (which may be either a permanent installation or “temporary” equipment brought on-site for a period of time associated with an incident, road construction, or other event). Some RSUs have the ability to transmit signals with greater power than OBUs and some may have connectivity to other nodes or the Internet.
Roadway Roadway is part of the surface of the road reservation primarily designed for the movement of vehicles that conform to a specified set of requirements.
Roundabout Roundabout is a special type of junction at which traffic moves in one direction round a central island to reach one of the roads converging on it.
Run/trial Test Run/trial is a test instance that includes at least one test or driving scenario. It can be repeated within one experiment several times – also with slightly changing the setting (parameter, test person etc.). It is comparable to trip, but typically more commonly used in the context of test track, simulation or simulator test. In contrast, trip is often used in the context of pilot or NDS / FOT and typically includes more driving scenarios.
SAE taxonomy of driving automation SAE taxonomy of driving automation describes the level of automation consisting of six discrete and mutually exclusive levels.
Safe state Safe state is the operating mode, in case of a failure, of an item without an unreasonable level of risk.
Safety Safety is absence of fatalities and injuries in traffic.
Safety architecture Safety architecture refers to the set of elements and their interaction to fulfil the safety requirements.
Safety driver Safety driver is the person at the controls within an automated vehicle, observing the driving environment, enforcing  the operational design domain, recognising challenging situations, detecting deviations from expected behaviour and ready and able to deliver the dynamic driving task when needed in order to preserve safety during development, testing or trial activities, in accordance with the safety case.
Safety measure Safety measure refers to activity or technical solution to avoid or control systematic failures and to detect or control random hardware failures, or mitigate their harmful effects.
Safety mechanism Safety mechanism refers to technical solution implemented by  electrical and/or electronic (E/E) functions or elements, or by other technologies, to detect and mitigate or tolerate faults or control or avoid failures in order to maintain intended functionality or achieve or maintain a safe state.
Safety of the intended functionality Safety of the intended functionality is the absence of unreasonable risk due to hazards resulting from functional insufficiencies of the intended functionality or from reasonably foreseeable misuse by persons.
Safety validation Safety validation refers to assurance, based on examination and tests, that the safety goals are adequate and have been achieved with a sufficient level of integrity.
Sample rate Number of data samples per time unit.
Sampling Sampling is the selection of a subset of datapoints from a statistical population (consisting of individuals or events of interests) to estimate characteristics of the population.
Scenario A scenario is a structured depiction, specified by a set of pre-determined conditions and variables, representing actual or theoretical states, situations, or interactions.
Scenario Scenario is a sequence of scenes usually including the automated driving system(s) (ADS)/subject vehicle(s), and its/their interactions in the process of performing the dynamic driving task (DDT).
Scenario instance A scenario instance represents a single segment in time that is assigned to a certain scenario.
Scene Scene is the snapshot of all entities including, but not limited to the automated driving system (ADS)/ subject vehicle, scenery, dynamic environment, and all actors and observer’s self-representations, and the relationships between those entities.
Scenery element Scenery element is the non-movable element of the ADS-equipped vehicle’s operating environment.
Service Service is the provision of one or more capabilities, functionalities or facilities to enable one or more tasks to fulfil a need.
Services and operation Services and operation is the provision of one or more capabilities, functionalities or facilities to enable one or more tasks to fulfil a need.
Severity Estimate of the extent of harm to one or more individuals that can occur in a potentially hazardous event.
Shared transport service Shared transport service is the transport service that relies upon the same resources to fulfil the transport needs of multiple unrelated transport users and where the transport provider has the primary responsibility for the operation of the transport mode.
Shared mobility Shared mobility is the shared use of a travel mode that provides travelers with access to a transportation mode on an as-needed basis.
Shared vehicle service Shared vehicle service is the transport service that sequentially provides the same vehicles to multiple unrelated transport users and where the transport user has the primary responsibility for the operation of the vehicle.
Shuttle service Shuttle service is the shared transport service that transports passengers between two specified locations.
Sign Sign refers to conveying information, an instruction, or a warning to road users.
Simulation Simulation is evolution of a model of real-world processes or systems over time.
Situation Situation is the scene from the perspective of an actor.
Situational variable Situational variable is an aspect of surroundings (testing environment) that can unintentionally affect the results of a study.
Slope value Slope value is the gradient of a surface that rises at an angle.
Societal scenario Societal scenario describes the society envisioned in the Evaluation, including the technology and its use.
Socio-economic Socio-economic is of, relating to, or involving a combination of social and economic factors.
Spatial reference Spatial reference is the description of a spatial location in the real world according to a defined reference system. Example: Coordinate tuple: 51.476852, -0.000500.
Special purpose vehicle Special purpose vehicle is a road motor vehicle designed for purposes other than the carriage of passengers or goods.
Special structure Special structure are the elements of the road infrastructure that may affect the mobility of the users.
Speed value Speed value refers to the rate at which the dynamic objects move or operate.
Stakeholder Stakeholder is the individual, team, organization, or classes thereof, having an interest in a system.
Status-sharing cooperation Status-sharing cooperation (CLASS A) refers to perception information about the traffic environment and information about the sending entity provided by the sending entity for potential utilization by receiving entities. (“Here I am, and here is what I see.”)
Station-based one-way Station-based one-way is the operational mode where the transport service is initiated and terminated at two different facilities managed by the transport provider.
Station-based roundtrip Station-based roundtrip is the operational mode where the transport service is initiated and terminated at the same facility managed by the transport provider.
Streaming data Streaming data refers to real-time data continuously transferred from a data source and processed as soon as it arrives its destination.
Structural metadata Structural metadata describe how the data are organized.
Study phase Study phase is the particular stage or segment of a research study.
Subject vehicle Subject vehicle refers to the automated vehicle, the behaviour of which is of primary interest in testing, trialling or operational scenarios.
Subjective data Subjective data originates from the opinions of the research subject.
Sub-trip feature Sub-trip feature is a driving automation system feature equipped on a conventional vehicle that requires a human driver to perform the complete DDT for at least part of every trip.
Supporting CDA feature Supporting CDA feature refers to a CDA feature capable of promoting cooperation among traffic participants intended to augment performance of actions by road users and road operators.
Sustainability Sustainability is state of the global system, including environmental, social and economic aspects, in which the needs of the present are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
System architecture System architecture is the fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in its elements, relationships ) and in the principles of its design and evolution.
Tactical driving task Tactical driving task refers to dynamic driving task which involves drivers or an ADS exercising manoeuvre control, allowing them to negotiate the directly prevailing circumstances.
Takeover Takeover is the process by which the sustained dynamic driving task function transitions either from a human driver to an automated driving system or from an automated driving system to a human driver.
Takeover request Takeover request is the vehicle generated notification to indicate an imminent requirement for the human driver to perform some or all of the dynamic driving task.
Takeover time Takeover time is the time between initiation of the takeover request and significant intentional intervention by the human driver.
Target operational domain Target operational domain is the set of operating conditions in which an ADS will be expected to operate, including, but not limited to, environmental, geographical, and time-of-day restrictions, and/or the requisite presence or absence of certain traffic or roadway characteristics.
Taxi hailing app Taxi hailing app is the mobility app that assists a transport user in electronically requesting a taxi.
Taxi service Taxi service is the commercial shared transport service that transports passengers sequentially.
Taxi share service Taxi-share service is the commercial shared transport service that transports passengers concurrently.
Technical evaluation Technical evaluation is evaluation addressing technical functioning of the CCAM systems or services.
Temporary structure Elements temporarily placed on the road due to local requirements or accidents and may obstruct or impact normal driving.
Test run A test run is a test instance that includes at least one test or driving scenario.
Test scenario Test scenario is the description of sequence of triggers, events and actions among use case entities (ego-vehicle, other traffic participants, etc.) in order to reach a use case goal.
Testing Process of planning, preparing, and operating or exercising an item  or element to verify that it satisfies specified requirements, to detect safety anomalies, to validate that requirements are suitable in the given context and to create confidence in its behaviour.
Testing environment Testing environment is a setup of software, hardware and network for the testing purposes.
Time history data Time history data describe the history of a measurement over time.
Time segment Time segment corresponds to a time period when some specific conditions are met.
Time to collision Time to collision means the time before a collision happens between involved vehicles/objects/subjects if their speeds would not change and taking into account their paths.
Traffic agent Traffic agent is anyone who uses a road including sidewalk and other adjacent spaces.
Traffic and network performance Traffic and network performance describes the capability of the transport network (supply) to carry the realistic travel demand.
Traffic density Traffic density is the number of vehicles occupying a given length of a lane or roadway at a particular instant, often given in vehicles per kilometre.
Traffic dynamics Traffic dynamics describes the interaction of many vehicles, drivers and other road users, leading to new collective effects that do not depend on the details of individuals. (Treiber and Kesting 2013). It is the outcome of individual decisions, actions, driving behaviour and driving dynamics.
Traffic efficiency Traffic efficiency describes the delays on a road network.
Traffic flow rate Traffic flow rate refers to the number of vehicles or persons passing a given point per unit time.
Traffic participant Traffic participant refers to the entities whose actions influence travel in the transportation environment, which may include road users engaged in travel upon or across publicly accessible roadways and road operators.
Traffic scenario Traffic scenario is a representation of the traffic and road infrastructure characteristics on a given segment.
Traffic volume Traffic volume is the total number of vehicles passing over a given point or section of a lane or roadway during a given time interval. Any time interval can be used, but volumes are typically expressed in terms of annual, daily, hourly, or subhourly periods.
Transit vehicle Transit vehicle is an equipped vehicle engaged in Transit operations, e.g., a bus.
Transport poverty Transport poverty refers to a lack of adequate transport services necessary to access general services and work, or to the inability to pay for these transport services.
Transport sharing Transport sharing is the using a shared transport service.
Transport system Transport system is a combination of elements and their interactions, which produce the demand for travel within a given area and the supply of transportation services to satisfy this demand.
Travel behaviour Travel behaviour is the trips performed by an individual or a group of travellers, and what kind of trips they were and how they were performed. Such characteristics include, for example, the origins, destinations, routes, durations, timing and travel modes of trips.
Travel information service Travel information service is an ITS service, including digital maps, that provides users, and end-users, with travel and traffic information of at least one transport mode.
Traveller Traveller is the person who is headed to a destination.
Treatment Treatment refers to the concept that you evaluate (CCAM solution in defined environment/context).
Trigger Trigger is the event that initiates or ends an action.
Triggering condition Specific conditions of a driving scenario that serve as an initiator for a subsequent system reaction possibly leading to a hazardous event.
Trip Trip is the complete journey by a vehicle from the point
of origin to a destination.
Trip A trip is a whole journey from passenger origin to passenger destination in one or more triplegs.
Trip aggregator app Trip aggregator app is the mobility app that assists a transport user  in planning trips that may span multiple vehicle modes or transport providers.
Tripleg A tripleg is a single stage of a trip that is made without change of mode or vehicle journey, for example, between each transfer.
Truck Truck is a motor vehicle designed to transport goods, or equipment on-board the chassis.
Un-equipped vehicle Un-equipped vehicle is a vehicle which is not equipped with an OBU device.
Unreasonable risk Unreasonable risk judged to be unacceptable in a certain context according to valid societal moral concepts.
Use case Use case is the abstract description of the interaction between a system, its user(s), and its environment in order to reach a particular goal.
User User is the person who travels with CCAM system or service, or who utilises it for goods transport.
User User is a general term referencing the human role in driving automation.
User scenario User scenario is a depiction that encapsulates users’ interactions with and experiences of the system or service.
User evaluation User evaluation is evaluation addressing interaction of people with the CCAM system or service, covering their experiences, opinions, expectations and awareness.
Validation Validation means by which it is proven beyond reasonable doubt that an end product meets its design intent and stated performance requirements.
Vehicle Vehicle refers to motorized, wheeled conveyance that is mechanically propelled and intended or adapted for use on roads.
Vehicle occupant Vehicle occupant is the person in or on a vehicle .
Vehicle sharing Vehicle sharing is the using a shared vehicle service.
Vehicle-to-grid Vehicle-to-grid is the plug-in electric vehicle interaction with the electric grid, including charging as well as discharging and bi-directional communication interface.
Vehicle-to-network Vehicle-to-network is vehicle sharing data with Network.
Vehicle-to-pedestrian Vehicle-to-pedestrian is vehicle sharing data with pedestrians.
Vehicle-to-everything Vehicle-to-everything refers to wireless communication between a vehicle and any entity including other vehicles and infrastructure
Vehicle-to-infrastructure Vehicle-to-infrastructure is unidirectional or bidirectional sharing of data between vehicle and infrastructure.
Vehicle-to-vehicle Vehicle-to-vehicle is vehicle sharing data with other vehicles.
Verification Verification refers to evaluation of a system to prove that it meets all its specifications at a particular stage of its development.
Vulnerable road user Road user who is more vulnerable to injury than a typical driver or passenger of a car, lorry, bus, or coach.
Weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
Well-being Well-being is the experience of health, happiness, and prosperity.
Zones Zones include special road configurations which may differ from typical conditions for driving, or areas with specific driving regulations or environmental conditions.

Feedback form

Have feedback on this section??? Let us know!

Send feedback


Please add your feedback in the field below.

Your feedback has been sent!
Thank you for your input.

An error occured...
Please try again later.