Denmark

Testing infrastructure

According to Denmark’s Promulgation of the Traffic Act (LBK Nº 1710), testing of EU or Denmark approved vehicle is allowed when the conditions are previously agreed with the Ministry of Transport. More detailed provisions regarding experimentation with AVs is expected to be published in the near future. From then, many project have been created, using this possibility. Testing of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is allowed in Denmark from July 1st, 2017.

One of the projects exploiting this possibility is the EU-funded Horizon 2020 project AVENUE (Autonomous Vehicles to Evolve to a New Urban Experience). From 2018 Holo, a company operator of autonomous vehicles, has provided a self-driving minibus service in Copenhagen with the main goal of validating the safety in the usage of autonomous vehicles in complex urban situations. The testing is performed in Nordhavn, an active industrial port with residential and commercial buildings.

The LINC project is another project with self-driving shuttles in Denmark. Here the shuttles are tested in natural urban environments with everyday passengers who require public transport. The purpose is to develop public transport so that it is also an attractive and green choice for citizens in the future. The shuttles are tested at DTU Campus in the City of Lyngby and demonstrated in the City of Albertslund and Hersted Industrial Park in Albertslund. The potential of this type of transport implies benefits such as improved road safety, more efficient use of the roads and sustainable cities, for example. The project is backed by the ERDF and Urban Innovative Actions, an EU initiative that gives cities funding to implement bold and creative projects.

Seven partners are working on the project: the municipalities of Albertslund and Gladsaxe, private companies Nobina Denmark and IBM Danmark ApS, the Technical University of Denmark and Roskilde University, and non-profit partnership organisation for a green transition Gate 21.

Procedure description

The process of operating in public roads requires the vehicle to comply with some requirements:

  • An official application by the vehicle owner:
    • Form for the Ministry of Transport and authorities
    • Shall be specified the test procedure: place, time and dangers
  • Motor vehicle liability insurance
  • Registration charge payment
  • Self-driving vehicles classified from SAE 0 to SAE 5 level vehicles.
  • Have a special permit from The Minister of Transport, Building and Housing.
  • Have a driver who can take control of the car if needed, either located in the vehicle or acting remotely. The driver must have a driving license which allows him/her to drive that type of vehicle
  • Technical specifications of the vehicle
  • Realize a test plan which includes the following points:
    • Test’s SAE levels
    • Specific map with the defined route where test will be conducted
    • Traffic conditions
    • Weather conditions
    • Test organization
    • Plan for processing the test data
  • An accepted assessment concerning road safety consequences from an approved safety advisor
  • General Data Protection Regulation shall be ensured.

Although is not compulsory for the responsible driver to complete a special safety training, Minister of Transport, Building and Housing can determine special duties for the person while is taking control of the vehicle.

Liability for damage cause by a driverless vehicle falls to the holder of the test licence.

In cases that the vehicle causes damage during the test, the Minister of Transport, Building and Housing can decide who will be criminally responsible:

  • Vehicle operator
  • Manufacturer and its employees
  • Provider of the necessary data infrastructure
  • Driver
  • Holder of the test license

Organization in charge

Ministry of Transport

Contact information

Waiting for information by the responsible organizations for this country.

Link to procedure website

https://www.trm.dk/en

https://www.retsinformation.dk/eli/lta/2021/1710

Roadmap to Automated Electric Shuttles in Public Transport

Further comments

More information about Denmark’s research projects can be found in the following websites:

https://www.connectedautomateddriving.eu/blog/testing-autonomous-mobility-solutions-in-copenhagen/

https://h2020-avenue.eu/summery/

https://lincproject.dk/en/om/

https://www.ikem.de/publikation/werdin2020/

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